New conservatism underscores the shift in the republican party in commenced in the 1960s and proceeded through to the 1980s. That resulted in the Republican party's change from a centrist and moderate ideology to a more extreme right-wing ideology (Bradstreet). The rise of New Conservatism was encompassed by Barry Goldwater's politics, together with Milton Friedman's economics in the 1960s in their reactions to president Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs, citing that they embodied the government's overreach besides causing inflations, unemployment and deficits (Bradstreet). Goldwater and Friedman claimed that the big government stifled not only the state's rights but also rights to individual liberty and economic reasons. Following their support for the free market and personal freedoms, the conservatism underlined that most special programs that were implemented by Roosevelt's New Deal underscored the federal government's egregious abuse of power. New Conservationism, therefore, advocated for a smaller government, juxtaposing that the social welfare programs highlighted corruption, intrusions of the lives of Americans, high taxation, and a stagnated economy.
Discussion on Conservatism
Conservatism in the United States saw a drastic growth between the 1960s and the 1980s following the country's progression from the Progressive Era to the New Era (Foner). The country's trials on vast policies ranging from domestic to foreign provoked essential changes not only to the people but also on the realms of other nations' views of the US. The extreme social movements, coupled with the country's reputation on a global scale and the abating economy's repercussions, informed the increased conservative bias in the entire region, thereby probing the rise of conservatism. As the country saw the rapid progression, primarily championed by the civil rights movements aimed to obtain equal rights for all citizens, there were occurrences of a plethora of societal changes in the people's daily lives. Although president Johnson crushed him in 1964, Goldwater still, articulated for his new conservation vision that emancipated for the conservative consciousness, galvanizing the personal responsibility rights. Following President Johnson's expansion of government in the 1960s (United States History), the New Conservatism expanded to the Great Society programs, coupled with other catalysts who pushed for reforms, among others the religious sects and the civil rights movements.
Reasons for the New Conservatism Rise to Prominence in the US Between 1965-1989
The New Conservatism became famous following the conservation's desire to exploit new moods in the country. First, the fundamentalist Christians who depicted the Bible as an inerrant and a direct word of God were concerned with the increased sex immorality and crime in the country. Besides, the evangelist movements aware of the removal of prayers from public schools, coupled with the pitted social progressiveness that was against Christian morals. The Protestant Work Ethics also rose to condemn some welfare programs like sexual liberation, socialism, and the culture of drugs that were depicted as notions implying that the country had turned away from God. The Moral Morality group, therefore, built large Christian coalition organizations in the country in the quest to bring back Religion as a central element in the lives of Americans, leading to conservatism prominence in the religious sects.
The New Conservatism also became prominent following the need for change in the Republican party from a moderate to an extreme stance advocating for the states' rights, constitutionalism, and a smaller government. The conservatism viewed a bigger government as a non-effective owing to its dilapidation of economy, stiffing of both states' rights and individual liberties (Buckley). The conservatism also depicted that the role of the federal government in the lives of people would shrink (Bergman). Americans, therefore, grew receptive of the conservatism's ideas regarding their limited government, championing a robust national defense, together with the protection of their traditional values against the encroachment of the chaotic and permissive modern society.
Similarly, conservatism had a galvanizing issue on abortion that was viewed as divisive and emotional. Following the 1973 Supreme Court ruling of Rue v Wade which upheld women's right to abortion in the early months of their lives, faced opposition (Reynolds). Conservatism, including the religious fundamentals and conservative politicians, were against the ruling citing that it was tantamount to murder, thereby organizing conservatism movements in the quest for change (Reynolds). Moreover, conservationism became popular as it favored the limitation of the government's interventions in the economy. The New Conservatism promise also delved on the willingness to use state power to encourage family values and stringent measures against crime like censoring of pornography, restricting homosexuality, constitutional amendments, and national defense.
New Conservatism marked a shift from in the Republican party from a moderate stance to an extreme position championing for legal reforms, small government, preservation of traditional values, free-market economies, states' rights, and the fight against the immoralities brought by the chaotic modern society. The move becomes prominent following the persuasiveness of its leaders stemming from the political conservatism to the religious sects. The New Conservatism also grew popular owing to its favor for the limitation of government on economic interventions, state powers' encouragement of family values, and stringent measures on national defense and against crimes like immoralities.
Bergman, Philips. "Barry Goldwater ABC 20/20 Interview." Our Amazing World, Oct.2016.[YouTube File], https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eu9v7NO_LgU&feature=youtu.be
Bradstreet, Sarah. "New Conservatism." Mangoosh, Nov.2017,https://magoosh.com/hs/apush/2017/new-conservatism-apush-topics/
Buckley, William. "Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: The Future ofConservatism." Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Jan.2017. [YouTube File],https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHl5WW_sNSs&feature=youtu.be
Foner, Eric. "The Rebirth of Conservationism." Norton History, Dec.2013.[YouTube File],https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdkVzKjK5Wc&feature=youtu.be
Reynolds, Donald. "What are the reasons why a new conservatism rose to prominence in the USbetween 1960-1989?"
eNotes Editorial, 13 Apr. 2016,https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-reasons-why-new-conservatism-roseprominence-679074. Accessed 3 May 2020.
United States History. "Conservatism and Rise of Ronald Reagan." US Department of State,2020, http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-136.htm
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