Q 1. Definitions
Environment refers to the living circumstances or the conditions affecting peoples and plants lives. Environmentalist- the person concerned with environment protection. Ecology is the biology branch dealing with the organisms relation to each other together with their external surroundings (Ratcliffe, 2012). Eco-climate is the climate considered as some ecological factor at the time.
Q 2. Values of nature conservation
Values of nature conservations involve three major components that include ecological value, economic value, and aesthetic value. Ecological value bases its concept of the fact that all non-living things and living organisms are interdependent on one another. This, therefore, gives a deeper reason for the need of protecting the systems of life support of the earth. One way that man has destroyed the planets life support system is the greenhouse effect. The increased use of fuels, for example, coal, petroleum, and oil has led to the increased percentage of carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere (Jorgensen, 2013). Accompanied by deforestation, very minimal amounts of carbon dioxide are removed from the atmosphere. This leads to heat retention in the atmosphere that leads to global warming. Economic value can be broken down into the generic diversity and healthy ecosystems. Healthy ecosystems are the natural resources that form the basis on which various economic systems are structured. Fishing, tourism, forestry, and agriculture all depend on the natural resources. Therefore, destroying the resource base drastically affect all these industries (Ratcliffe, 2012). For instance, overfishing leads to reduced fish population thus losses to the fishing industry. The fishermen get affected by this hence affects the supply of other essential goods in the market. Generic diversity- animals and plant breeding programs are critical to ensuring there is maintained generic diversity among them. Plant-based medicines are imperative to man and animals in general. These drugs include quinine that acts as an antimalarial and aspirin.
Aesthetic value is the beauty supplied by nature and its calmness. Through various aspects of nature, man can find different places suited for recreational activities such as mountains and the sea. Therefore, these places must be conserved to maintain their beauty.
Q 3. Overkill, its development and effects.
Overkill refers to the destruction amount that exceeds the necessary factors that ensure completion of annihilation. Overkill developed in America during the Pleistocene age. The humans came across mammoths and mastodons that did not run away from them. The men, therefore, killed all the species of the animals leading to the overkill situation. European colonization that was accompanied by advancement in tools resulted in the extinction of island animal species such as dodo. Increased advertisements for goods in the modern society have increased the consumption rate of the population leading to overconsumption of certain food types thus their overkill (Ratcliffe, 2012). The overall effect of the overkill is that it leads to depletion of essential parts of the fauna and flora. This leads to ecological imbalance hence destroys the earths support system of life.
Q 4. The difference between sewage and sewerage
Sewage refers to the waste in the liquid form produced by a group of people or a community. The composition of these wastes is the discharges originating from the lavatories, sinks, and toilets. Sewerage on the hand refers to the collection and removal process of these waste. It encompasses the treatment plant provision to ensure no such wastes are released into the waterbodies or even the soil.
Q 5. Effects of untreated sewage discharged within a community
Improper discharge of sewage can result in the contraction of various diseases. Such diseases include typhoid, fever, intestinal infections, dysentery, hepatitis, and poliomyelitis. Other effects include bad smell, disgusting floating materials, reduced water quality in which they are discharged, and disruption of recreational activities that are carried out in such water bodies. The reduced water quality also interferes with industrial activities and municipal usage of the water body.
Q 6. Process of sewage decomposition
The process of sewage decomposition is entirely associated with bacterial actions. There are three types of bacteria which are associated with sewage decomposition; aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen in carrying out their actions. Anaerobic ones operate in the areas that lack oxygen while facultative ones function under both absence and presence of oxygen. Fresh sewage contains little amounts of oxygen. Therefore, the organic substances are first acted upon by the aerobic together with facultative bacteria until all the oxygen is depleted (Jorgensen, 2013). After this exhaustion, the anaerobic and the facultative bacteria take charge of the decomposition process. Their actions lead to putrefactive changes on the organic substances thus producing gasses such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane. The putrefaction step is required in the complex compounds decomposition. Oxidation step then follows as the final step information of the unobjectionable compounds. The oxidation and the putrefaction process are not entirely accomplished but they are carried out far enough leading to nuisance prevention (Ratcliffe, 2012).
Q 7. The changes of the character of refuse over the few decades
The reduced use of solid fuels and coal domestically and smoke control areas establishments have significantly led to decreased ashes in the domestic refuse. Additionally, the need for combustible material removal has been eliminated due to the increased use of oil and electricity in various homes (Ratcliffe, 2012). Vegetable matter, on the other hand, has little variance, but the percentage can easily be influenced by sink grinders disposals that occur in some areas. In certain places, the garden refuse amount has increased. However, the greatest difference is the increased packaged goods use, especially the plastic bags. The increased household waste has led to the outdating of the galvanized bins. Due to this overwhelming increase, the public is encouraged to put their waste in separate containers depending on the nature of the refuse to help with the ease of sorting and recycling.
Q 8. Considerations made when selecting incineration site
There are some considerations that should be put in mind when selecting a site for incinerators. These factors include the access to the site by rail or road being easy about collection areas the site should be centrally placed. The site location should be near a factory that can utilize the steam produced by the incinerators. Lastly, the site must be remote, away from residential homes to avoid dust and odor exposure to the public.
Q9. Advantages and disadvantages of using refuse as fertilizers
The primary benefits of using refuse as fertilizer are in the sense that it enlightens and aerates heavy soils. It also makes good use of the domestic leftovers thus avoiding wastage. They form cheap fertilizer source since they are readily available and in abundance. The disadvantages are that it has low fertilizing value, for instance, nitrogen content of 0.5%, potash 0.3%, organic matter 34%, and phosphoric acid 0.5% (Jorgensen, 2013). Additionally, it is time-consuming since it requires six months for complete preparation.
Q 10. Process of controlled tipping
Controlled tipping refers to the tipping that is done under severe supervision by the relevant personnel and following the set practices. The process is hygienic and very cheap since it does not cause offense to the public (). The following are laid out techniques by the various local authorities to ensure controlled tipping; the deposition is made in the form of layers, all the layers must be within 1.8 meters in deepness. Each of the layers is completely covered, and it should ensure that all areas exceeding eighty-four square meters are covered. No refuse should take more than a day without being covered. Sufficient screens must be used to avoid blowing of debris and paper from deposition areas (Jorgensen, 2013). The refuse must not be deposited in the water at all cost, at the same time all precautions must be taken to avoid fire outbreak. Those refuse that are rich organically is covered three-quarter meters in depth after their deposition. The surfaces of the waste should be higher than the surrounding land surface. Fermentation then follows after some time due to the heat and moisture that result from the minute growth formation. The growths feed on the organic matter in the refuse leading to chemical changes within the refuse. The fire at the tip is prevented by consolidating the site and sowing of grass in the areas. The refuse can be watered lightly to reduce the temperature at the tip.
Q 11. Global Warming, its development, and effects
Global warming refers to the gradual increase in heat at the lower earths atmosphere. It is also called the greenhouse effect. This is because greenhouses used for the planting of flowers and vegetables allow short light wavelengths to penetrate into it but do not allow the long wavelength heat radiation from within the greenhouse to go out. This leads to heat build-up within the greenhouse. Global warming develops due to the increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouses concentration in the atmosphere. The standard composition of the earths atmospheric gasses is as follows; a four-fifth nitrogen, one-fifth oxygen, 0.3% carbon dioxide and different trace gasses. From a research conducted in Hawaii by international Geophysicists showed that there is dipping of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by 3.5% every decade during summers (Martens, 2014). The carbon dioxide build-up has the same effect as the greenhouse glass thus does not allow heat escape into the outer space. The overall impact is the heat accumulation in the atmosphere raises the temperature of the planet. The burning of coal, transportation, industries and different home emissions from the primary sources of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. Global warming has various effects on the earths condition. Global warming has led to the increased temperature of the earths atmosphere, reduced ice and snow cover. There is increased ocean water temperatures thus interfering with the aquatic life. Global sea-level rise and increased atmospheric moisture. In different places of the world, there has been rapid species extinction and distribution changes of disease-causing organisms. Also, the traditional food production is disrupted, with melting of the glaciers of Greenland leading to increased sea level (Martens, 2014). If the rise in sea level continues, then the low-lying areas such as Holland would have drastic changes in sizes since most of the parts would be submerged in the seas and oceans.
Q 12. Causes of ozone depletion and its consequences
Ozone refers to a very reactive and colorless gas. Each molecule of the gas has three atoms of oxygen as opposed to the typical two atom oxygen molecule gas. There are some causes of the depletion of this gas. However, chlorine based compounds more so the Chlorofluorocarbons, form the primary cause of ozone depletion. The molecules of chlorine are highly reactive; therefore, they react with ozone and change it into a regular two oxygen atoms gas molecule (Martens, 2014). Halons also release molecules of bromides that are very active ozone layer destroyers. The Chlorofluorocarbons are relatively stable and inert; therefore, remain for decades within the atmosphere thus have higher chances of destroying...
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