|Type of paper:||Literature review|
|Categories:||Mental health Depression Psychological disorder|
Depression is a very serious mental health problem that results to a persistent feeling of sadness and the loss of interest in activities. According to research, it is estimated that one in every five kids is likely to experience depressive episodes during adolescence (Mclaughlin & King, 2015). Depression affects how the adolescent teens think, and behave thus resulting in various emotional, physical and functional problems (Eagleton et al., 2016). Although depression may occur at any point in life, the symptoms tend to be deferent between adults and teenagers. Issues such as the academic expectations, peer pressure and the changes taking place in the body may various create a lot of ups and downs among the adolescent teens resulting to depression. Some of the main signs and symptoms of depression among adolescent teens include changes in behaviour and attitude and increased distress that can cause problems at home and in school. To control the rate of depression among adolescent teens the appropriate bodies or organizations should implement a long-term treatment plan. Most adolescent teens the symptoms of depression tend to reduce with the implementation of various treatments methods for example medication and psychological counselling. This study intends to conduct a literature review on the effects of depression among adolescents and prevention.
According to research approximately 8 to 10 % of the school teenagers usually suffer from depression as a result of various factors that affect them at home and school ( Ruderman et al., 2013). Cases of depression among adolescent teens are more frequently assumed or ignored as compared to the cases of depression among older adults. According to research since the year 2000, the little concern that has been put on the adolescent teens has resulted to the increased suicide rate among the young population thus resulting to approximately 2000 suicide cases every year(Moreh & O'Lawrence, 2016). Before adolescence, both the female and the male usually report or indicate the same level of depression. However later on after the onset of puberty, the female tends to have a higher probability of developing depression as compared to the male, this is due to the expanded stressors that the female experience throughout the phase of the youth (Witvliet et al., 2010). Adolescents depression is linked to various factors or causes that include, first, bullying in schools, in the recent past schools have become breeding zones for bullying and students mistreatment (Mezulis et al., 2014). This makes the students to feel depressed as a result of finding it hard to mingle with the rest of the children.
Secondly, peer influence, most of the adolescent youth are at risk of being influenced by friends to indulge in various immoral activities such as substance use. Engaging in practices such as substance use enhances the probability of suffering from depressions since the drugs affect once ability to relate with others. Thirdly, the changesthe the body is undergoing also tend to be a risk factor of depression. Some youths tend to feel depressed due to the new changes that occur in the body such as the appearance of the menstrual cycle. Fourth, Poor relationship with family members and friends affects the adolescents both mentally and emotionally resulting to depression. The boys in the adolescent stage tend to have lower peer support as compared to the girls; this is because the boys base their friendships on mutual interests while the girls have more independent friendships (Cohen et al., 2015).
Effects of Depression in Adolescence
Depression usually results to various effects that include, first, destruction of the social life, the depressed individuals usually find it hard to relate easily with their peers and families. They mainly prefer to separate themselves from friend and family members due to the fear of exposing or sharing what they are going through, in their life. Secondly, depression may also trigger dangerous behaviours such as self-harming and suicidal thoughts (Hamilton et al., 2016). The depressed individual usually undergo very tough times trying to accept what they are going through or the changes that are occurring in their environment. This makes the depressed individuals to decide to harm themselves through committing suicide to stop experiencing the challenges. Lack of friend and family members to share the challenges that one is undergoing enhances the chances of creating self-harm. Fourth, the depressed adolescent may experience academic difficulties. Depressed individuals usually find it hard to focus or concentrate in school. They usually spend most of their time reflecting on their problems instead of concentrating.
To prevent the incidences of depression among adolescent youth, various measures have to be implemented. These measures include, first, implementation of the interpersonal psychotherapy adolescent skills training. This program should be implemented particularly for the students aged between the age of thirteen to seventeen years who are at risk of experiencing depression (La Greca et al., 2016). The program emphasises on psych education concerning depression and the various ways of dealing with interpersonal conflicts and enhancing social support. Secondly, depression can also be prevented by practicing various social skills and increasing the level of interpersonal functioning. This will enable the depressed adolescents to easily share out their feelings and experiences thus reducing any possibility of a self-harming or suicides (La Greca et al., 2016). Thirdly, enhancing the parent and children relationships, parents should be engaged I seminars to enlighten them on the importance of maintaining a close relationship with their children (Lewis, 2011). Maintaining a good relationship with parents helps to reduce or eliminate the stress that the children may have experienced since the child can share out and listen to the parent's advice.
Cohen, J. R., Spiro, C. N., Young, J. F., Gibb, B. E., Hankin, B. L., Abela, J. R., & Z.(2015). Interpersonal risk profiles for youth depression: A person-centred, multi-wave, longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(8), 1415-1426. Retrieved from, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0023-x
Eagleton, S. G., Williams, A. L., & Merten, M. J. (2016). Perceived behavioral autonomy and trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(1), 198-211. Retrieved from, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0201-z
Hamilton, J. L., Potter, C. M., Olino, T. M., Abramson, L. Y., Heimberg, R. G., & Alloy, L. B. (2016). The temporal sequence of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following interpersonal stressors during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(3), 495-509. Retrieved from, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0049-0
La Greca, A., M., Ehrenreich-may, J., Mufson, L., & Chan, S. (2016). Preventing adolescent social anxiety and depression and reducing peer victimization: Intervention development and open trial. Child & Youth Care Forum, 45(6), 905-926. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9363-0
Lewis, G. (2011). Family factors and child and adolescent depression symptoms: Testing environmental and genetic risk effects using longitudinal and genetically sensitive research designs (Order No. U579263). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1327104992). Retrieved from, https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1327104992?accountid=11809
Mclaughlin, K. A., & King, K. (2015). Developmental trajectories of anxiety and depression in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(2), 311-323. Retrieved from, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9898-1
Mezulis, A., Salk, R. H., Hyde, J. S., Priess-groben, H., & Simonson, J. L. (2014). Affective, biological, and cognitive predictors of depressive symptom trajectories in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(4), 539-50. Retrieved from, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9812-2
Moreh, S., & O'Lawrence, H. (2016). Common risk factors associated with adolescent and young adult depression. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 39(2), 283-310. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1828181122?accountid=11809
Ruderman, M. A., Stifel, S. W. F., O'Malley, M., & Jimerson, S. R. (2013). The school psychologist's primer on childhood depression: A review of research regarding epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment. Contemporary School Psychology, 17(1), 35-49. Retrieved from https://kean.idm.oclc.org/login? url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/ 2001012477?accountid=11809
Witvliet, M., Brendgen, M., van Lier, P. A., C., Koot, H. M., & Vitaro, F. (2010). Early adolescent depressive symptoms: Prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(8), 1045-56. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9426-x
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