|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||History Political science Industrial revolution|
Several developments characterized the industrial revolution and the era of nationalism and imperialism. The developments include manufacturing and the effort made by the manufactures of taking care of their clients. The factors which led to the development of nationalism include a common language, historical experience, and ethnicity. People wanted to be united through these factors as opposed to the past when they were united through dynasties and religion. Imperialism was also characterized by religion, exploratory, economic, political, and ethnocentric motives. The era of industrial revolution had a reinforcing effect on the subsequent nationalism and imperialism since it created a situation where European nations united with the motivation of acquiring large empires from which they would access cheap labor, raw materials and markets for their produce.
There are several developments which characterized the industrial revolution globally. An essential aspect in the industrial revolution was the effort made by the manufacturers to take care of the market especially the clothes industry. Also, according to Mason (37), "The mechanization of production allowed a huge increase in productivity and economic output. It also had far-reaching social and political consequences, with the advent of assembly-line factories, urbanization, the transformation of the family, and the rise of a new social class." These aspects characterized the industrial revolution and mankind advanced because of them. They were motivated to make more unique and great things that can impress the buyers.
"The Immediate effects of this manufacturing phenomenon were a rapid increase of the wealth, industry, population and political influence of the British Empire (Sadler Committee 164)." The idea of manufacturing played an essential role in the industrial revolution. Manufacturing increased wealth as people were able to buy transformed goods and it had political influence in the British Empire. Due to manufacturing human beings advanced as they tried to look for more ideas on the items that they can manufacture and can get a high market. On the other hand, human advanced since they were able to utilize items which had been processed. Furthermore, goods could be exchanged as, "Britain produced mostly linen and wool at home and imported cotton textiles, primarily from India (Mason 37)."
Nationalism is mainly characterized by the feeling of a community among individuals who are based on a common language, historical experience, and ethnicity. These factors resulted in the development of nationalism. Before the emergence of nationalism states were mainly based on dynastic ties or religion. "It must, therefore, be admitted that a nation can exist without a dynastic principle and even that nations which have been formed by dynasties can be separated from them without therefore ceasing to exist" (Renan 392). People learned of race and it is one of the things that resulted in the development of nationalism. According to Renan (392), "The fact of race, which was originally crucial, thus becomes increasingly less important. Human history is essentially different from zoology, and the race is not everything." Furthermore, strong nationalistic movement and revolution were successful in nullifying much nationalistic and nationalistic work of the Congress in the 19th century to promote nationalism.
The other main reason for the development of nationalism was to unite groups of individuals with no common ethnoreligious identity in fighting against a colonial power. Industrial revolution resulted in economic growth which made people commence fighting for wealth. Thus, through nationalism, they were able to approach a common enemy. Furthermore, unification in Germany was achieved due to several reasons including the role of Bismarck, 1871 German unification, Decline of Austria, Prussian military power, and Prussian economic strength. "The rising economic muscle of Prussia, combined with the decline in Austrian production meant that Prussia could develop a more modernized army. It also meant that the smaller German states began to look to Prussia for trade, especially with the benefits the Zollverein brought" ("Why Unification Was Achieved in Germany" 1). Humans advanced because of the above developments as they learned on the importance of being united.
There are different motives which resulted in the development of imperialism. The motives included religion, exploratory, economic, political, and ethnocentric reasons. Imperialism made the British to have control over the Eastern part of Africa. "A charter has just been granted to the Imperial British East Africa Company. This Company will now administer and develop a territory with an estimated area of about 50,000 square miles, including some of the most fertile and salubrious [health-giving] regions of Eastern Africa (Taylor 131)." The British were to have control over these nations due to religious, economic, or political reasons. Human advanced due to imperialism as people turned to be moral, hardworking, and upstanding beings.
The search for wealth and raw materials also resulted in the development of imperialism. "The English dominion had two other consequences for the conquered population. One was the creation of an army under English jurisdiction, officered by Englishmen and staffed by Indian sepoys-Brahmins (Wolf, Thomas, and Noel 250)." Nations wanted to get more wealth by acquiring other nations as they had already developed in terms of industrialization. Moreover, there was a need to get raw materials for the industrialized economies. Acquiring and colonizing other nations was a show of power and that is the reason developed nations fought to acquire developing nations. Human advanced through imperialism as they learned the importance of being united so to acquire other nations.
Berlanstein, Lenard R., ed. The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Routledge, 2003.
Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. 1872.
Mason, David S, and David S. Mason. A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011. Print.
Renan, Ernest. What Is a Nation? And Other Political Writings., 2018. Print.
Taylor, Tom. Punch, Or, the London Charivari. London: W. Bradbury, 1876. Internet resource.
"Why Unification Was Achieved in Germany - Revision 1 - Higher History - BBC Bitesize". BBC Bitesize, https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zqp3b9q/revision/1. Accessed 3 Mar 2019.
Wolf, Eric R, Thomas H. Eriksen, and Noel L. Diaz. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 2010. Print.
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