Water sprinklers depend only on water and gravity. Their main problem is that they need a lot of maintenance and they have a great effect of the electrical safety sue to having water sources nearby. The initial cost is quite high for building the system (Alshehri et.al, 2014).
Methods of cleaning PVs
Robotic Device for Cleaning PV
High initial cost
Requires man power
30 liters per meter squared
4 people per meter squared
Low water used
Few people needed
TF-4 cleaning technology
High initial cost
Low water usage 1 liter per meter squared
Low man power
No man power
Solar energy comes from the sun in the form of Solar Irradiance, which can be directly converted by the photovoltaic cells into electricity. However, the cells have limited efficiency approximately 15-20% (Kuchiki et.al, 2015). Therefore, to increase the cells efficiency, the PV systems need to be improved. Improvements can be such as having sun trackers that ensure the angle of the panel is facing the sun at any given time. However, dust is the main problem that affects the efficiency of the solar panels. For instance in a study to find out the effect of dust on the effectiveness of the solar PV panels showed that dust reduced solar radiation by about 1% when the angle is tilted at 30 degrees (Kuchiki et.al, 2015).
Therefore, the maximum degradation is 4.7% over a period of three months (Schneider et.al, 2015). In another case, it was found out that rain and dust were tested on their effect on the effectiveness of the PVs. In days of no rain, the efficiency of the PV decreased by 0.2% due to the dust accumulations which were approximately 1.5 to 6.2% depending on the location of the arrays. An investigation on the on the monthly output in a dusty area such as Tehran shows that dust accumulation caused a decrease in efficiency by 60% as the increased amount of dust caused little access to the sunlight (Schneider et.al, 2015). The effectiveness of the photovoltaic solar panels is measured by the capability of solar panels to convert the sunlight into usable energy. Thus, it is essential to have the right panel depending on the intended use. The following equation is used to calculate the maximum efficiency;
Pn= VocIsc FF
Voc is the open-circuit voltage Isc is short Circuit current, FF is the fill factor, and N is the efficiency. The solar cell efficiencies are measured under the standard test condition (STC) whereby the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius and the irradiance are 1000W/m2 and the air mass is at 1,5. On the other hand, the array is tested using 12 modules while each module is made of monocrystalline Silicon CSUN (Nikolic & Vasic-Milovanovic, 2016). Therefore,
Abdulhussein, A. T., Kannarpady, G. K., Wright, A. B., Ghosh, A., &Biris, A. S. (2016). Current trend in fabrication of complex morphologically tunable superhydrophobicnano scale surfaces. Applied Surface Science, 384, 311-332.
Al-Ghannam, S. (2012). Comparison Analysis on Different Cleaning Technologies for Photovoltaic Panels of Utility Scale Application. Presentation, Smart Grid conference, Saudi Arabia-Jeddah.
Adinoyi, M. J., & Said, S. A. (2013). Effect of dust accumulation on the power outputs of solar photovoltaic modules. Renewable energy, 60, 633-636.
Alshehri, A., Parrott, B., Outa, A., Amer, A., Abdellatif, F., Trigui, H., ...&Taie, I. (2014, December). Dust mitigation in the desert: Cleaning mechanisms for solar panels in arid regions. In Smart Grid Conference (SASG), 2014 Saudi Arabia (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Aman, M. M., Solangi, K. H., Hossain, M. S., Badarudin, A., Jasmon, G. B., Mokhlis, H., ... &Kazi, S. N. (2015). A review of Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) issues of solar energy system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 1190-1204.
Archer, M. D., & Green, M. A. (Eds.). (2014). Clean electricity from photovoltaics (Vol. 4). World Scientific.
Bakhshi, R., &Sadeh, J. (2016). A comprehensive economic analysis method for selecting the PV array structure in gridconnected photovoltaic systems. Renewable Energy, 94, 524-536.
Berenguel, M., & Rubio, F. R. (2012). Advanced control of solar plants. Springer Science & Business Media.
Bradley, A. Z., Kopchick, J., &Hamzavy, B. (2015, June). Quantifying PV module defects in the service environment. In Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2015 IEEE 42nd (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
Budischak, C., Sewell, D., Thomson, H., Mach, L., Veron, D. E., & Kempton, W. (2013). Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time. Journal of Power Sources, 225, 60-74.
Cameron, L., & van der Zwaan, B. (2015). Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 160-172.
GEKKO Solar Farm. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.serbot.ch/en/products/solar-panel-cleaning-robots/gekko-solar-farm
GhaffarianHoseini, A., Dahlan, N. D., Berardi, U., GhaffarianHoseini, A., Makaremi, N., &GhaffarianHoseini, M. (2013). Sustainable energy performances of green buildings: A review of current theories, implementations and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 1-17.
Dorman, R. G. (2014). Dust Control and Air Cleaning: International Series of Monographs in
Heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration (Vol. 9). Elsevier.
Ghazi, S., Sayigh, A., &Ip, K. (2014). Dust effect on flat surfacesA review paper. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 742-751.
Giostri, A., Binotti, M., Astolfi, M., Silva, P., Macchi, E., &Manzolini, G. (2012). Comparison of different solar plants based on parabolic trough technology. Solar Energy, 86(5), 1208-1221.
Green, M. A., Emery, K., Hishikawa, Y., Warta, W., & Dunlop, E. D. (2015). Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45). Progress in photovoltaics: research and applications, 23(1), 1-9.
Hafez, O., & Bhattacharya, K. (2012). Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids. Renewable Energy, 45, 7-15.
Han, Y., Meyer, S., Dkhissi, Y., Weber, K., Pringle, J. M., Bach, U., ...& Cheng, Y. B. (2015). Degradation observations of encapsulated planar CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite solar cells at high temperatures and humidity. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3(15), 8139-8147.
Hanaei, H., Assadi, M. K., &Saidur, R. (2016). Highly efficient antireflective and self-cleaning coatings that incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into solar cells: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 620-635.
Heo, S. Y., Koh, J. K., Kang, G., Ahn, S. H., Chi, W. S., Kim, K., & Kim, J. H. (2014). Bifunctional MothEye Nanopatterned DyeSensitized Solar Cells: LightHarvesting and SelfCleaning Effects. Advanced Energy Materials, 4(3).
Jain, A., Vu, T., Mehta, R., & Mittal, S. K. (2013). Optimizing the cost and performance of parabolic trough solar plants with thermal energy storage in India. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 32(3), 824-829.
Jalbuena, K. R. (2010, 8 27). Mars-inspired technology makes PV-panels-self-cleaning. Retrieved 9 14, 2013, from ecoseed.org/technology: http://www.ecoseed.org/technology/13801-mars-inspired-technology-makes-pv-panels-self-cleaning
Jaradat, M. A., Tauseef, M., Altaf, Y., Saab, R., Adel, H., Yousuf, N., &Zurigat, Y. H. (2015, December). A fully portable robot system for cleaning solar panels. In Mechatronics and its Applications (ISMA), 2015 10th International Symposium on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Kamins, T. (2012). Polycrystalline silicon for integrated circuits and displays. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kaplani, E., Panayiotatos, Y., &Kaldellis, J. K. (2015). TiO2-based nanocoating with self-cleaning and anti-reflective properties: effects on PV performance. In Photovoltaic Technical Conference-Advanced Materials and Processes to Innovative Applications 2015.
Kawamoto, H., & Shibata, T. (2015). Electrostatic cleaning system for removal of sand from solar panels. Journal of Electrostatics, 73, 65-70.
Keating, T. J., Walker, A., &Ardani, K. (2015). Solar Access Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV Operations and Maintenance; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, January 1, 2014-December 31, 2015 (No. NREL/SR-6A20-63235). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States).
Khatib, T., Mohamed, A., &Sopian, K. (2012). A review of solar energy modeling techniques. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), 2864-2869.
Kjaer, S. B., Yang, G., Ipsen, H. H., Frederiksen, K. H., &Ostergaard, J. (2015). Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks. Proceedings of EuPvsec 2015.
Kuchiki, K., Aoki, T., Niwano, M., Matoba, S., Kodama, Y., & Adachi, K. (2015). Elemental carbon, organic carbon, and dust concentrations in snow measured with thermal optical and gravimetric methods: Variations during the 20072013 winters at Sapporo, Japan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(2), 868-882.
Lin, R. P., Dennis, B. R., Hurford, G. J., Smith, D. M., Zehnder, A., Harvey, P. R., ...&Csillaghy, A. (2003). The Reuven Ramaty high-energy solar spectroscopic imager (RHESSI) (pp. 3-32). Springer Netherlands.
Maghami, M. R., Hizam, H., Gomes, C., Radzi, M. A., Rezadad, M. I., &Hajighorbani, S. (2016). Power loss due to soiling on solar panel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1307-1316.
Mazumder, M. K. (2013). U.S. Patent Application No. 13/909,523.
Mazumder, M. K., Sharma, R., Biris, A. S., Zhang, J., Calle, C., & Zahn, M. (2007). Self-cleaning transparent dust shields for protecting solar panels and other devices. Particulate Science and Technology, 25(1), 5-20.
Mazumder, M., Horenstein, M., Stark, J., Hudelson, J. N., Sayyah, A., Heiling, C., &Yellowhair, J. (2014, October). Electrodynamic removal of dust from solar mirrors and its applications in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. In Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2014 IEEE (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
Mejia, F. A., &Kleissl, J. (2013). Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California. Solar Energy, 95, 357-363.
Moharram, K. A., Abd-Elhady, M. S., Kandil, H. A., & El-Sherif, H. (2013). Influence of cleaning using water and surfactants on the performance of photovoltaic panels. Energy Conversion and Management, 68, 266-272.
Nikolic, D., &Vasic-Milovanovic, A. (2016). Comparative Study of Gamma and Neutron Irradiation Effects on the Silicon Solar Cells Parameters. FME Transactions, 44, 99-105.
Prasad, D., & Snow, M. (2014). Designing with solar power: a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Routledge.
Reichelstein, S., &Yorston, M. (2013). The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power. Energy Policy, 55, 117-127.
Richardson, D. B. (2013). Electric vehicles and the electric grid: A review of modeling approaches, Impacts, and renewable energy integration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 247-254.
Salam, Y. A., Green, T., & Lin, Y. T. (2014). AUTOMATED SELF-CLEANING SOLAR PANEL.
Schill, C., Brachmann, S., &Koehl, M. (2015). Impact of soiling on IV-curves and efficiency of PV-modules. Solar Energy, 112, 259-262.
Schneider, M. N., Jain, R. P., Alderman, J., & Goodman, M. K. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,016,292. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Singh, G. K. (2013). Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: a review. Energy, 53, 1-13.
Smith, M. K., Wamser, C. C., James, K. E., Moody, S., Sailor, D. J., &Rosenstiel, T. N. (2013). Effects of Natural and Manual Cleaning on Photovoltaic Output. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 135(3), 034505.
Twidell, J., & Weir, T. (2015). Renewable energy resources. Routledge.
Tyagi, V. V., Rahim, N. A., Rahim, N. A., Jeyraj, A., &Selvaraj, L. (2013). Progress in solar PV technology: Research and achievement. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 443-461.
Weitemeyer, S., Kleinhans, D., Vogt, T., &Agert, C. (2015). Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in future power systems: The role of storage. Renewable Energy, 75, 14-20.
Yang, Y. T., Ekinci, K. L., Huang, X. M. H., Schiavone, L. M., Roukes, M. L., Zorman, C. A., &Mehregany, M. (2001). Monocrystalline silicon carbide nanoelectromechanical systems. Applied Physics Letters, 78(2), 162-164.
Dornier, I. (2001). U.S. Patent No. 6,269,517. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Mondal, A. K., & Bansal, K. (2015). Structural analysis of solar panel cleaning robotic arm.
CURRENT SCIENCE, 108(6), 1047.
Schneider, M. N., Jain, R. P., Alderman, J., & Goodman, M. K. (2015). U.S. Patent No.
9,016,292. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Need a paper on the same topic?
We will write it for you from scratch!
If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:
- Living on the Razors Edge
- Youth Sports Injuries
- Application of computer in medicine and health care
- Euthanasia debate
- Teacher compensation models
- Benefits Of Physical Activity Essay Sample
- Policies of Alabama Medicaid Agency
- Literature as a social platform in Ward
- PEST Analysis template
- The Illusive Eye Exhibition at The Museo Del Barrio NYC
- Brand Extension Assignment
- Evolution by Natural Selection