Undeniably, the Russian Revolution was one of the most significant events that shaped both the political and economic advancement of modern times. The Great Revolution led to the establishment of ideologies that stimulated both detestation and optimism across many nations and regions in the world. However, the Russian Revolution is not a point of controversy but rather the questions of why it did and to what extent were significant impacts. In Western Europe, Russia was among the nations viewed as undeveloped and backward, and for this reason, there was a great need for a revolution, one that later led to fast industrialization and rapid social and political changes. During the revolutionary era, the Soviet government believed that their economic system would rapidly surpass that of other powerful countries like the USA and Germany. The mighty rule of the USSR and its profound influence gave rise to different classical, social, political, and economic problems that advanced from one stage to another during the era of supremacy. This paper sets out to explore the role of the Soviets and the significant occurrence of each event that shaped the revolution. Also, by discovering the history of the USSR, a more in-depth understanding is unveiled on the effects that the rise of events such as communism and capitalism had on the development of other systems of the world. The happenings from the establishment to the fall of the USSR have clearly been applied as a model in other countries in political, cultural, and economic spheres. This paper argues that despite the USSR's political and economic system appearing as viable alternatives at the onset and later ruined after being unable to compete on the global stage, the revolution is still a powerful world model adopted by other countries even after a demand for the introduction of capitalism as a system for reform.
Understanding the history of the Russian Revolution is essential in comprehending why and what led to the happenings of different events that left a strong impact in most countries in the world. The Great Revolution in 1917, marked the close of the Romanov dynasty and the long years of imperial rule in Russia. The new revolutionary government started when the Bolsheviks seized power and ended the traditional power becoming the communist party of the Soviet Union. Russia had had a series of wars in the years before the Great 1917 Revolution (Riasanovsky and Steinberg 487). In all the wars, Russia suffered defeat except in the Russo-Turkish war. This series of wars caused a lot of public unrest and the suffering of the country's economy. Agriculture was the main contributor to the economy, with most of the people creating their living through it. The peasants, the rise of the industrial working class, and the tsar of Russia were the major groups that contributed to the wars before the Great Revolution. The Bolshevik revolution charged Russia into a civil war that lasted for three years. The peasants were a part of the Red Army secretly organized by Lenin and other members of the communist parties.
The Impacts of Revolution Events in the Era
The Impacts of the revolution event during the era 1917-1991 provide an insight into the fundamental objectives of the struggle that was happening not only in Russia but also in other parts of world. USSR was established by Bolsheviks after the tumbling of the Romanov emperor in the same year, 1917 (Riasanovsky and Steinberg 487). The first revolution happened in February 1917 and saw the overthrowing of the imperial government, and the second one in October the same years was the one that placed the Bolsheviks in control. In 1917, the pressures for reforms begun as a result of weakened political and economic systems with rampant corruption and inefficiency from the government (Riasanovsky and Steinberg 487). The Russian government's inefficiency during World War I brought a problem that could not be solved by the old regime used in power. This war and problems made revolution an inevitable event since, after the battle, it was clear that Russia could no longer measure to the military strength of the western and Central Europe countries. A Revolution was also necessary because the economy was much interrupted. This crisis that seriously called for a revolution forced Nicholas II to step down, making the Russian supporters glad that the country was finally under a Liberal-led administration. Russia fought against Germans along with the USA, United Kingdom, and France. Therefore, handing over of the government gave other nations confidence that they could now vigorously fight the Germans. Heading the government of the Soviet Union, Lenin used the principles of Marx and Engels and successfully improved the demands of open politics.
The Onset of the Soviet Economy
Russia's economy was shaped by the fact that the economy was the primary aspect used to build political power. Lenin embraced socialism and believed that capitalism would disappear with a revolution and would only happen under certain conditions. The new Bolsheviks government declared a complete reversal of the previous policies. Lands were put under peasant controls, while industries and banking organizations became nationalized. Bolsheviks believed that through economic empowerment, the people also would rise and help overthrow the other governments (Riasanovsky and Steinberg 487). The rule was made to be an accessible communist reign that was achieved by the leaders simplifying the Marxist intellectual intricacy. The main aim of the Bolsheviks was to arouse the country from the previous injustices and get rid of the differences of social class that existed. These events generated a new way of economic thinking mostly in the west and Asian countries such as Japan.
The Impacts of the Rise of Communism
The rise in communism in USSR was a critical aspect adapted by other countries such as China as a way of forming socioeconomic orders that are structured towards collective ownerships and efforts for development. According to the socialists, communism was to be achieved in later stages of societal development where the state institutions would all have been eliminated. Karl Max was the most crucial icon that devised the ideas of communism in Europe while Lenin acted as a critical practitioner in the implementation of the ideas. Communism in Russia was adopted following a series of revolutionary movements that extended to World War I(Riasanovsky and Steinberg 505). Before the adaptation of this system of government, the country was governed by a monarchial government under which the poor were leading long-suffering lives. Aforementioned, the peasant workers and Industrial laborers were the main actors in the war against the government.
The countries in Europe that practiced communism did not refer to themselves as communists but rather socialists because they believed that achieving communism was a process that would not be fully attained at once. Communism was experienced more from the time when Lenin took over power and planned an economic recovery through programs such as a national free healthcare system and access to free public education. Following the difference in types of governance of Bolsheviks and the White Guard, a civil war erupted and ended in 1921 (Daniels 54). Following his push for communism, Lenin established the New Economic Policy, which paved more way for private businesses and a market type of economic system even though it had some contradictions with Karl Marx's ideas. After Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin, one of the Communist Party key military leaders, took over. Stalin, however, revamped the New Economic Policy developed by Lenin to a more centralized economy that was controlled by the state. Stalin did not work with Lenin's view of socialism, but under a totalitarian rule of terror, that pushed for rapid industrial development. However, it is essential to note that, through his doctrine of "Socialism in One Country," Russia was able to focus more on building a free society with no class within the boundaries of the Soviet nation (Riasanovsky and Steinberg 464). Despite the brutal killings, Communism still rose more with Stalin's fight for a stronger country with a continued idea of revolution.
During this era of communism, the idea was fast established in other regions and nations such as East Germany, Poland, Cuba, Congo, Yugoslavia, Kenya, South of Vietnam, among many others. Stalin maintained that the revolution could be made by the soviet countries being isolated; however, essential to acknowledge that through the USSR's model of achieving socialism and communism, other communist countries can draw upon industrialization ideas in cases where the capitalist countries may try to bring the country down.
The Impact of the Soviet Foreign Policy
While implementing communism, the primary purpose of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic was to establish an economic upsurge strong enough to compete on the global standards with other capitalist countries in the West. USSR's strive for peace and economic development started to face threats in the early 1930s when the German leader Hitler rose to power in his country (Daniels 91). The rising of Hilter led to the increased formulation of foreign policies. The process of foreign policy happened in three significant steps; the first which mainly involved growth of significant international relations, the second phase was characterized by the Nazi-Soviet agreement, and the third one was in the period after the death of Stalin and events of the cold war that involves indirect conflict between two major powers. The foreign policy aimed to expand the international relationship between the USSSR with other countries more so those in the west. However, Stalin recognized the danger that capitalism around the world posed to the Soviet nations and decided to uphold isolation through the development of "Socialism for one Country" Idea. Stalin's actions were based on the interest of the USSR as a nation to protect it from the rest of the world after a thwarted attempt to entre an agreement with China.
The establishment of a tactful foreign policy in the Stalin era has since influenced the relationship between the United States and Russia. Russia gained a lot of influence in relation to other nations such as Turkey and Ukraine, making the USA fight against it in trying to win partners to the Soviet nation. The results of the USSR's foreign policy tactics between 1930-1953 are later felt in the action of Russia annexing the Crimean Peninsula and intervening in Eastern Ukraine in 2014 and 2015 (Oliker et al.). During the Stalin era, Russia formed international relations with weaker countries such as Ukraine to act as a buffer on its borders for the protection of attackers such as the United States. By entering in agreement by these border states, the Soviet Union moved a step forward towards the defeat of its main competitor, the US.
The Significance of the Collapse of the Soviet Economy
In spite of the collapse of an initially perceived strong communist system, the events of the USSR revolution are used by other countries as a model to help manage a centralized government with a diverse and fast-growing economy comprised of various political systems. The collapse is essential because it helps discover the reasons behind the fall, such as the rise of democratization that came with multiple political party systems, weakened military, and economic instability. Noteworthy, the collapse of the Soviet Union was unforeseen because of the misperceptions of the communist type of system. Some of the misperceptions were the Soviet Union's display of strong and lasting power.
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