The rise of media, sometimes known as the Gutenberg initiation, has had a significant impact on media since its inception in the recent past. The early news was mainly presented to the general public through an outrageous printing press. However, in other colonies where there were occasional newspapers and printers, they had exceptional literacy rates that are combined with the desired methods of making news pleasant. As a result, the introduction and rise of printing not only gave rise to a new image in media but also ensured that the intended information reaches the intended audiences within an appropriate time. Notably, the increase in print across the world has also had a significant impact on the nature and type of information that is being relied on by the audience and their credibility for consumption. According to Fussel (2020), the invention of the screw-type wine printing press by Gutenberg was the most desired practice that boosted the needed change in media and its platforms. Though the development of the printer had various effects on the messages to be delivered and, in most cases, charred with inevitable setbacks, its inception remains essential in the better part of the media transition. While various developments have been made about the need for development in media across its history and growth, the rise of print by Gutenberg has had an impact on media use in society. This paper focuses on examining the significance of print in helping record-keeping among Sumerians and how it led to the end of writing by hand.
Early Writing in Sumer on Accounting and Record-Keeping
Writing was first invented before 3000 B.C. in ancient Mesopotamia by the Sumerians. The invention was also independently done in Meso-Americans as early as 600 B.C. before the design was conducted before 1300 B.C. in China (Chatterjee, 2017). However, throughout these invention processes, writing has had several impacts on record-keeping and accounting. The primary three writing systems that were introduced by the Sumerians include the Sumerian cuneiforms, Mayan glyphs, and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Each writing had a significant feature that not only defines its worth but also helps in keeping safe the records of the country with which it is based. Significantly, all the writings that were adopted by the Sumerians had criteria that they had to meet. For instance, they must consist of artificial graphical marks that are made on durable surfaces and capable of lasting longer and communicating something. According to Maiocchi (2019), fake graphical targets must be achieved based on the conventional relationships that exist between language and marks. The development of these writings gave rise to unusual ways in which past information can be recorded and used as references in the future.
Additionally, the writings in Sumerian have pictures and other graphics that not only communicate the social life of people but also show characteristics and qualities that were not evident in knot records and tally sticks. Notably, the earliest Sumerian cuneiform was accounting on its own and consisted of pictograms that represent commodities like a number or a sheep. The clay tablets that were common in the system were just but examples of record keeping technique that was evident in the writing system. The use of token shape among the Sumerians was another essential feature of the early writing the made it easier for such books in accounting and record-keeping.
Effects of the new Printing Press in the 1450s on political campaigning, rising literacy, universal understanding
The free printing press of 1450 was the most significant innovation in modern information technology. This concept was first conceived and developed in Korea and China to aggregate various m technologies that are being utilized by humans in many years to come. However, regardless of the variety that the platform may have had on the past writings, it portrayed a significant impact on a political campaign, raising literacy, and shared understanding. For instance, in political campaigning, the 1450s printing press allowed the democratization of knowledge as more people were getting access to the intended information at an appropriate time. The 1450s printing press helped in the spread of ideas about politicians. It also asserts the position of the monarchy and its significance among Americans as well as outlines controversial thoughts that might be realized in the government. The association between interrelation between people and political aspirants has been shaped due to the increased use of the printing press to pass information and information related to either a political party or the opinions of an aspirant.
On literacy, the 1450s printing press was viewed as an agent of change, especially in educational practice. The intention adversely transformed the relationship between the student and educators. In the recent past, such links were jarred because of a lack of documents to account for issues that have been addressed. The production of much Latin language work from the printing press acted as a significant way of promoting the language. According to Streitmatter (2018), due to the limited number of people who speak Latin, the word was hard to grasp nut with recorded documents, the access was simplified and translations made based on the aboriginal language of the speaker or learner. The number of book output also increased at an affordable price to the readers. The books also increased the level of literacy among people, as most of them had excellent information to read. The books had valuable information that could be used for future references and studies, thus improves the levels f literacy among people.
Moreover, the printing press has also improved understanding of various concepts and issues that are essential for the growth and stability of people across the world. In the past, the use of spoken ones, letters, tally sticks, and pictures that were not durable did not extensively meet the demands and pass the most intended information. As a result, understanding the meanings of variables or issues being discussed became a challenge as one symbol may have a different sense is used by others. Similarly, an image on an object may not portray the actual meaning of other purposes being discussed. However, since the introduction and invention of printing, significant changes have been seen across all disciplines making understanding concepts and ideas present to have a unified meaning (Hiebert & Gibbons, 2017). For instance, printed books, journals, pictures, newspapers, articles, and other related written pieces have not only made learning more comfortable but also reduces complexities that might be realized in trying to fathom their meanings. The inclusion of various translations in the 1450s printing press also enabled us to have adequate access to the information in a language that they can easily understand as opposed to Latin, which was common in the recent past.
In conclusion, the invention of home Radios in the 1920shas had a significant impact on concert attendance since people listened from home. The 1920 design of radios made it easier for a large number of people in the United States to hear music while it is being played in concert halls. Radios also made it easier for the messages to be heard at the comfort of a person, not necessarily visiting the concert hall or venues where the performance is being aired. For instance, in 1922, the increased number of radio broadcasting because as opposed to a concert where one program was being played, radio had many plans that one can tune to at will and listen to. Similarly, most rural stations were made accessible and linked with larger ones making it easier for people to get access to information comprehensively and amicably. The programs that were introduced in the 1920s were mainly to lure people and win their trust in the new technology as well as allow them to revamp their efforts in creating a safe and relationship with others. Radio erased the problems of socio-economic redundancies that were deleted as radio was cheap to afford and use. They also focus on spreading the culture of classical culture, and the majority of things that are being addressed are first-hand and do not require much time to evaluate. Overall, the invention of radios in 1920 also came with crystal sets that could be made at home and used to serve more functions in relaying information to a larger population as compared to the concert hall where audiences were only limited to a particular amount of information.
Chatterjee, S. (2017). Record keeping through the ages. I.Q.: The RIM Quarterly, 33(1), 40. https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=596775247683226;res=IELAPA> ISSN: 0816-200X.
Fussel, S. (2020). Gutenberg and the Impact of Printing. Routledge.
Hiebert, R. A., & Gibbons, S. (2017). Exploring mass media for a changing world. Routledge.
Maiocchi, M. (2019). Writing in Early Mesopotamia. Beyond the Meme: Development and Structure in Cultural Evolution, 22. https://manifold.umn.edu/system/resource/9e4001aa-0c04-43e1-8a29-ffce55855f85/attachment/original-06181f53b39f212aca8112bced2d192d.pdf
Streitmatter, R. (2018). Mightier than the Sword: How the news media have shaped American history. Routledge. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0cb9/c6b6aad0a0cb3336a7132b8b78148e9cd90c.pdf
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