Part One: Describe, Identify, and Define
Polynesians' perception of water may be best understood by studying various words that apply to water as 'wai' meant freshwater and 'puna wai,' freshwater or spring, 'puna' meant spring. 'Kaha' meant place while 'kahawai' meant river or stream, and 'away' which meant the humanmade diversion of the flow of fresh water through a channel or a ditch purposely for irrigation or domestic use. Water gave life to all the food plants, including vegetation. Water, therefore, symbolized wealth for a people or land which had it was indeed wealthy (Handy et al., 57). The native Hawaiians (the earliest occupants of Oahu) fetched their water from the lakes, freshwater springs, shallow wells, and streams with an incredible population of about 100,000 surviving on the highland through wise management of the water resources and their lands. However, the water management authorities took advantage of the water resources, thus leading to severe environmental crises (Rechtschaffen and Denise 113). The first Hawaii water supply cases originate from different spatial precipitation distributions with an average of 73 inches annually and on the individual islands ranging from 6.5 inches to 650 inches (Rechtschaffen and Denise 113). The Hawaiian population has increased since 1950, with a corresponding increase in the water supply-demand for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use (Sproat and Moriwake 249). Still, the primary water use in Hawaii is for agriculture, which is evenly supplied from the ground and surface water. Researchers suggested that if the demand for water supply would have continued island-wide, then it could have been fulfilled by 2000; this was according to the Water Resources regional study of Hawaii in 1979. The research also suggested that the smaller islands would require an additional supply of water by 2020 (Rechtschaffen and Denise 113). The Hawaiian's collective control and use of water can be summarized below.
The state controls the aquifers in two areas for their benefits, and the withdrawal of supplementary groundwater supply would result in saline water intrusion or some other severe effects. The water supply resources of Hawaii usually experience prolonged droughts like the one witnessed between 1976 and 1977, which resulted in a substantial decrease in groundwater levels and stream-flow on Oahu and other states' islands (Sproat and Moriwake 269). This drought also led to severe crop damage, restrictions of water uses, and loss of livestock. The most dependable source of water in Hawaii is surface water, which comes from her islands, but tunnels and ditches transport most of this water. Some of the challenges of future surface water development are esthetic an environmental considerations, lack of reservoirs and storage sites, possible adverse effects on the groundwater, and water treatment cost.
The Hawaiians turned large tracks into farmlands and fed their large population for many centuries through improved agricultural irrigation systems before the arrival of colonial masters. Disease and recruitments in plantations alienated the Hawaiians with their traditional taro system hence transformed their acreages into bondage fields. The colonial masters came with cattle that traversed the open areas of Ewa and slopes of the mountain even though the pineapple farmers still survived with their crops (Rechtschaffen and Denise 257).
Imperialism invaded Hawaii when it first signed a treaty with the United States in the year 1875, and the US waited five years later after setting up an annexation with the new government of Hawaii. They annexed Hawaii in 1898 as a result of the war which native Hawaiians vehemently opposed through protests. They believed that if the government of the United States discovered that a large section of Hawaiians was against annexation, then they would stop it. The patriotic league of Hawaiian and its female associates petitioned against annexation treaty after the tenure of US President William McKinley in 1887. Dole overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and established a new provincial government (Sproat and Moriwake 252). However, the government of the United States gained the military advantage, the first territory located outside the boundaries as well as economic enrichment (Rechtschaffen and Denise 266)
Part Two: Analysis & Logics
Almost all the water crises result from human hazards or interference with the water cycle, and the Hawaiian case is not different. From the text, it is evident that the Hawaiian water supply authorities, in conjunction with the westerners, play a central role in the water crisis. During droughts, the boss owned the right to regulate water supply, and the large scale farmers were given priority to irrigate their farms and diverge some to their dams, unlike the small 'lo'i" from the hillsides were only given ''Kulu'' meaning drops (Sproat and Moriwake 256). The ditches were often cleared and prepared communally but were withheld for any planter who failed to take part in the process.
Similarly, an energetic man who inspired others to work under him would acquire more water than the rest. Taro would claim more water as the rest of the pants, such as bananas, potatoes, and canes, were considered dryland plants unless there was water to spare (Handy et al., 58). In other words, there is a sense which the control of water supply also led to the water crisis in Hawaiian states.
Today, the increasing threat of water crisis demands the innovation of technology as well as forming new connections with organizations, people, and companies across value chains. The potential to solve water problems is in our corporate hands, and going beyond traditional methods will yield fruits. Some of the effects of the water crisis in society today may include food shortage and death of livestock, while the primary cause of water shortage is pollution and misuse of water resources. Water scarcity interferes with the global energy out. United Nations now view water shortage as a scarcity in availability resulting from the physical lack due to the failure of institutions to establish a constant source of water supply or adequate infrastructure (Sproat and Moriwake 261). There is an upcoming research body that reasserts the benefits of water concerning geological stability. Agricultural concerns and human health are also of great value. Political leaders worldwide now use water scarcity as a means to consolidate power.
Part Three: Possible Next Steps
In order to uncover or develop solutions to the effects and causes of water, there is a need to collaborate worldwide. For instance, SABIC works with farmers across the world to help improve food yields and to help cater to a predicted population of nine billion by 2050 (Sproat and Moriwake 271) SABIC is also assisting the world farmers in growing more crops using less water, especially in arid areas. Therefore, the collaboration with the government, growers, and agribusiness farmers helps to produce abundant harvests with less water usage (Sproat and Moriwake 270). Cooperation in maintaining a constant water supply, particularly in areas experiencing low rainfall, has also contributed to solving water shortage; that is, SABIC partnerships always keep world water supplies at normal levels. SABIC packaging also helps reduce food waste. Also working in hand with schools to ensure sustainability becomes part of the corporate future could also be part of this program even though it could be gradual and expensive.
Handy, E. S., Elizabeth Green Handy, and Mary Kawena Pukui. Native planters in old Hawaii: their life, lore, and environment. Vol. 233. Bishop Museum Pr, 1972.
Rechtschaffen, Clifford, and Denise Antolini. Creative common law strategies for protecting the environment. Environmental Law Institute, 2007.
Sproat, D. K., and I. Moriwake. "Ke Kalo Pa'ao Waiahole: Use of public trust as a tool for environmental advocacy." Creative common law strategies for protecting the environment (2007): 247-284.
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