The Frequency of Occurrence of Hyponatremia

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InstitutiinDuring the research, there was little information gathered from other previous studies that yielded similar observation except from Prasad et al. and the Indian studies. It was clear that hyponatremia can easily be described using variable frequencies in majority of children and young adults. However, in most cases, the described variable frequency differs based on the degree of hyponatremia and the difference in age among pediatric patients (Berry & Belsha 1999). In our methodology, a sample size of 162 children was taken and admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), which is observed to be less than that of Prasad et al. and Indian whose sample sizes were 727 children and 500 children respectively. By comparing the childrens Mean +SD age among the three studies, it is perceived that Indian mean +SD of 4.32+_3.935 years is greater than our estimated mean +SD of 3.29+_3.93 years and that of Prasad et al. 3.14+_3.18 years.

The results on the frequency distribution of serum sodium concentration among the sample size in our research methodology shows that it is less than the frequency distribution of serum sodium concentration in both Prasad et al. and Indian researches.

According to Prasad et al. study, the frequency of hyponatremia in summer (36%) was one and half times that of winter (24%). The study also concludes that the frequency of severe hyponatremia was 7.6% in summer and 5.4% in winter. It discusses that the frequency of hyponatremia was 26% in Pneumonia and 33% in meningoenceophalitic illness, which was higher during summers as compared to winters. The study also assumes that about 80% of cases of hyponatremia that were associated with acute respiratory illness, meningitis, and seizures were of dilution type (Prasad et al. 1994). According to the Indian study, the frequency of hyponatremia was 20.54% cases in meningitis, 12.43% in pneumonia and 7.56% in seizures. The study also explains that among children with congenital heart diseases 67% had hyponatremia (Prasad et al. 1997).

In normal cases, sodium concentration of plasma is often maintained between 135 and 145 mmol/L and in case it drops to less than 135mmol/L, a case of Hyponatremia is experienced. Hyponatremia in pediatric intensive care patients is normally subordinate to some conditions such as heart failure, renal failure and pneumonia. Some previous studies assume that hyponatremia can be seen in patients suffering from renal diseases such as nephritic syndrome. Hyponatremia is at times associated with several types of cancers such as leukemia (Chiang, Wattad & Hill 1992). This study assumes that in the category of mild hyponatremia using a sample size of 162 patients, 36% of neurological cases, 78.9% of cardiac cases, and 70.7% of patients diagnosed with respiratory diseases were discharged, and 12.2% of the patients died. Among the shock cases noted down, 36.4% were discharged and 10.5% died in the same category whereas 18.4% and 13.2% of patients were discharged in moderate and severe hyponatremia, respectively (Shann & Germer 1996). In addition, records of trauma cases showed that all of the patients were discharged with mild hyponatremia.

Additionally, the level of mortality linked to hyponatremia is frequently high. It is sometimes hard to establish the exact Hyponatremias effect to the rates of mortality as a result of the traditional other high risk co-morbid disorders coexistence. For instance, some researches assume that patients who developed seizures have a higher mortality level. Nevertheless, extreme hyponatremia in pediatric patients is frequently linked to 20-times higher mortality especially when in comparison with unselected patients of similar age range. In the availability of substantial co-morbidity disorders, it is sometimes difficult to evaluate the exact effect of hyponatremia that would result to death (Fraser, Ayus & Arieff 1992).

REFERENCES

Chiang ML, Wattad A & Hill LL. (1992). Hyponatremia in hospitalized children. Chicago:

Chicago University Press. Print

Fraser CL, Ayus JC & Arieff AI. (1992). Hyponatremia and death or permanent brain damage

in healthy children. London: McGraw Hill. Print

Shann F & Germer S. (1996). Hyponatremia associated with pneumonia or bacterial meningitis.

Arch Dis Child. New York: Prentice Hall. Print

Berry PL & Belsha CW. (1999). Hyponatremia. Pediatric Clinic North America. Arch Dis Child.

New York: New York University Press. Print

Prasad et al. (1997). Hyponatremia in sick children seeking pediatric emergency care. Indian

Pediatrics. India: University College of Medical Science and GTB Hospital

Prasad et al. (1994). Hyponatremia in sick children: A market of serious illness. Indian

Pediatrics. India: University College of Medical Science and GTB Hospital

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