Roman architecture was a structure that had unique designs as compared to today’s buildings. The Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, and Persians all had classic monumental architecture (Stokstad et al. 252). The architects mostly relied on the building’s lintel-and –post systems by using two upright posts such as columns that consisted of horizontal blocks called the lintels laid flat on the top (Stokstad et al. 254). One suitable example of such a building is the Greek Paestum temple found in Italy. The essay elaborates more on the advancements of engineering and architecture by the Romans by revealing the building types and architectural designs used.
(Figure 1): The Hera II, Paestum building. Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 257
Since lintels are heavy materials, the interior part of the building was built with small sizes. The interior space of the building also had space to support heavy loads from outside.
(Figure 2): The Giovanni Paolo Panini building Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 266
As known the Roman architecture was different from such traditions because of the exploitation, experimental, and discovery of arches, vaulting, and concrete, such as the one shown in (figure 2). The most common architects known to be involved in this include Hadrian, who was present during 76 AD, Titus (39AD), Vitruvius (15BC), and Hadrian (76AD) (Stokstad et al. 271). Usually, the Roman construction materials aggregate, broken tiles, and bricks that were roughly broken from volcanic stones known as tufa.
The Roma architecture usually focused on the (an open plaza that has essential buildings), the religious, economic, and civic heart of the heart. In this forum, temples like the Capitoline temple dedicated to Minerva, Juno, and Jupiter were found in shrines (Stokstad et al. 279). In this case, Tarquinius Priscus started the Capitoline temple and was later finished by the last king of Rome. The forum plan was used to design the law of court (basilica) and other official meetings in the town council's famous building, such as the bustling forum.
(Figure 3): Pompei facing towards Mountain Vesuvius. Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 281
Often, the city’s vegetable, fish and meat markets were seen around the bustling forum. Around this forum consisted of marking crossings and framing gateways connected to the city's architecture with the arches, colonnades, fountains, and porticoes (Stokstad et al. 292). The purpose is to make the Roman city beautiful to welcome travelers from other countries. The Pompeii in Italy is a suitable example of a town that consists of an active forum.
(Figure 4): The house of Diana, Ostia. Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 314
The Romans had a variety of houses. For instance, the wealthy people built Domus in the city and villas as the country's farmhouse. On the other hand, the less fortunate managed to live in insulae (Stokstad et al. 324). The House of Diana, as shown in (figure 4), is a suitable example that never stopped the Romans even when the architects died before they finished. The reason behind these designs is to commemorate the architects such as the Eurysaces the Baker, whose tomb was built and still stands in Rome at the Porta Maggiore.
(Figure 5): The Eurysaces tomb. Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 360
Throughout their domains, the Romans built aqueducts meant to introduce water to the cities to increase their sanitary condition. Since the water was available, they also designed the bathhouses that became standard features of the Timgad, Roman cities, England and Algeria. The Roman styles also consisted of a gymnasium bath complex built by the states. Suitable examples include the Baths of Caracalla, which had running trucks, libraries, and gardens (Stokstad et al. 365). There was also an adequate supply of clean water derived from the sources that were taken through the piers (a structure that passed through the neighborhoods).
(Figure 6): The aqueducts built across the city. Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 353
The republican of the Roman architecture was facilitated by Etruscans (also known as Rome’s early kings). The Etruscans also got the influence of Greek architecture. A suitable example is Jupiter's temple, located at the Capitoline Hill in Rome, built in the six-century B.C.E (Stokstad et al. 354). The structure consists of the Etruscan architecture hallmarks. The erection of the temple came from a local tufa set on a high podium to form the frontality image.
(Figure 7): The Temple of Jupiter Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al “Art history.” 1999, p. 376
The porch's design is deep to allow visitors to approach it from one side instead of making them walk around similar to what happens in the Greek temples. Another visible structure is the three cult rooms, which form the Temple of Jupiter unique and influential during the republican period (Stokstad et al. 378). Such tradition never limited the Roman architects to try new things. For instance, in the late Republican era, the architects began using concrete to see how capable the material is while building on a grand scale.
Roman architecture was a structure that had unique designs as compared to today's buildings. The Romans had a variety of houses. For instance, the wealthy people built Domus in the city and villas as the country’s farmhouse. The purpose of this is to make the Roman city beautiful to welcome travelers from other countries. However, evidence shows that the republican of the Roman architecture was facilitated by Etruscans (also known as Rome’s early kings. The topic is very educational because more of what led to today's building structures are revealed.
Stokstad, Marilyn Michael et al. Art history. 6th ed. Pearson, 1999.
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