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Kidney stones are also known as calculi. The medical and scientific name for kidney stones is nephrolithiasis. It means the formation of small stones that deposits in the urinary tract, which would be called urolithiasis. Most of these stones form in the kidney, hence kidney stones. Anyone can get kidney stones, they mostly affect people between the ages of 20 and 60, and others keep getting kidney stones throughout their lives. The causes, signs and symptoms and treatment for kidney stones is discussed in the following essay.
Kidney stones usually develop as a result of the continued lack of fluids in the body. They are mostly made of calcium. They form when concentrated urine dissolves, the salt that remains during this process hardens. As this continues to happen the salts increase in size and they hence get stuck in the ureters. As the stones get bigger, they make it difficult for the urine to pass into the bladder; as a result, urine flows back into the renal pelvis which results to dilation. This causes tremendous abdominal pain (Pearle, 320). Kidney stones may also develop when there is a bad mix of chemicals in the urine which makes salts turn into crystals. A urinary tract infection can also lead to stone forming.
There are many types of kidney stones, and each has its cause. Some people can get kidney stones because of their diet or family history. They include calcium oxalate stones; it's the most usual kind of kidney stone and its forms as a result of high levels of calcium and low levels of citrate. It is linked with foods rich in oxalate; they include tea, nuts, chocolate, and potatoes. Another type of kidney stone is calcium phosphate stones; it is caused by abnormalities in the urinary system functions (Ferraro, 70). Kidney or urinary complications can cause it. Struvite stones are another type of kidney stone; it is caused by certain types of urinary tract infections. Struvite stones tend to grow quickly and increase in size; they sometimes occupy the whole kidney. If not treated on time they can cause a series of urinary tract infections and also lead to kidney failure. Uric acid stones, this is a type of kidney stone that mostly affects men. It forms as a result of not drinking water or intake of food high in animal protein. It also occurs in people with gout and those with a family history of this kind of stone. Lastly, cystine stones, this kind of kidney stone is triggered by a hereditary genetic disorder. The genetic disorder can lead to excess collecting of amino acids that can result in the development of the stones.
The indications of kidney stones include pain in the posterior, abdomen or side. It is also known as renal colic. It is the most extreme type of pain that can be imagined. The pain usually starts when the stone moves toward the narrower part of the ureter. As a result, it makes pressure build up in the kidney. The pain comes and goes in waves; it is made worse when the ureter contracts while trying to push the stone. Pain or a burning sensation during urination is another sign of kidney stone (Phillips, 210). A person infected with kidney stone starts to feel pain while urinating when the stone gets to the junction between the ureter and the bladder it is also known as dysuria. Urge to urinate frequently is also a sign of kidney stone and it is usually in small amounts it is also known as oliguria. This is also a sign that the kidney stone has reached the lower part of the urinary tract. Blood in the urine is also a sign of kidney stone; it is also known as hematuria. It is most common in people with urinary tract stones. Another symptom is cloudy or smelly urine; it is a sign of infection in the kidney. Cloudiness formed as a result of puss in the urine and the smell can be as a result of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections. Nausea and vomiting is another symptom of kidney stone; this happens as the body's way of responding to intense pain. Lastly fever and chills, they happen as a sign of infection in the urinary tract or the kidney.
Some of the medical situations that increase chances of getting kidney stones to include Crohn's disease, renal tubular acidosis, medullary sponge kidney, and hyperparathyroidism and dents disease. Medications that can intensify the risk of getting kidney stones to include vitamin D and topiramate. In the newsletter, Medical News Today Peter Crosta M.A. says, "Researchers establish that topiramate (Topamax), a drug commonly recommended to treat appropriations and migraine annoyances, has high chances of increasing the likelihood of kidney stones developing (Pearle, 320). Also, continuous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements leads to an accumulation of calcium leading to high levels which can cause kidney stones. Gastric bypass surgery, chronic diarrhoea, and inflammatory bowel disease are conditions that lead to the formation of kidney stones because they affect the absorption of calcium.
Kidney stones can be prevented in many ways. The chance of a person who had kidney stones getting them in future are very high. Ways to prevent it from happening include drinking a lot of water if the urine is dark yellow (Pearle, 320). Getting on tome treatment for the urinary tract infection will also help prevent a person from getting kidney stones. Change in diet is also advised to some patients depending on the cause of the stones.
There are different ways of managing the pain caused by the stones; they include giving fluids or water to the individual if they are severely dehydrated with an intravenous tube and an anti-inflammatory medication. If the patient is experiencing nausea and vomiting, they can be given an anti-emic medication. To break the kidney stones, a urologist will use a machine that uses ultrasound shock to do it. This machine is used outside the body, and it's called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Alternative ways of removing the stones are through having a minor surgery or by having a thin tube inserted in the urethra. The surgeon makes a small incision for the surgery through the skin to get an opening to access the kidneys to be able to remove the stone. The procedure is known as percutaneous nephrolithotomy. In situations that the stones are bigger, the surgeon uses ultrasonic to break it into smaller pieces (Kirac, 1560). This will enable the surgeon to remove the pieces more easily. When the process is complete, the surgeon inserts a nephrostomy tube to help drain the urine from the kidneys.
In conclusion, kidney stones is a medical condition that is caused as a result of the formation of tiny stones in the kidney. They can be caused as a result of dehydration, calcium accumulation and also as a result of hereditary genes. The signs and symptoms of kidney stones comprise nausea, vomiting, blood in the urine, cloudiness in the urine, pus in the urine, burning sensation while urinating and frequent urination. Kidney stones can be treated, or they can be removed by minor surgery.
Pearle, Margaret S., et al. "Medical management of kidney stones: AUA guideline." The Journal of Urology 192.2 (2014): 316-324. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022534714035320. Accessed on December 3, 2018.
Ferraro, Pietro Manuel, et al. "Dietary Protein and Potassium, Diet-Dependent Net Acid Load, and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2016): 60-87 CJN-01520216.https://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/11/10/1834.short. Accessed on December 3, 2018
Phillips, Rebecca, et al. "Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium-containing kidney stones in adults." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10 (2015): 208-250. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010057.pub2/abstract. Accessed on December 3, 2018
Kirac, Mustafa, et al. "Reduced radiation fluoroscopy protocol during retrograde intrarenal surgery for the treatment of kidney stones." Urology journal 11.3 (2014): 1589-1594. http://www.urologyjournal.org/index.php/uj/article/view/2494. Accessed on December 3, 2018
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