|Type of paper:||Dissertation|
The rural areas of Aba have been affected by the menace of malaria, but experts suggest that there are effective mechanisms that can be used to prevent the situation (Mutombo et al., 2018). Nonetheless, Aba area is not the only district that is affected by malaria because as per data obtained in 2015, there were more than 400,000 reported cases of malaria deaths and an estimated infection rate of 200,000 (Ntonifor & Veyufambom, 2016). However, the lack of education on malaria has been found to be among the factors that prevent the natives of Aba from taking precautionary measures. More so, the community lacks access to healthcare workers to treat the emerging infections (Manu et al., 2017). Therefore, this research will look at the effectiveness of using mosquito nets that have been reused and treated with insecticide repellants. Notably, insect treated mosquitos have been found to have several advantages such as killing the mosquitos once they land on the net (Manu et al., 2017). In the previous locations that insecticide-treated nets have been used, the number of people with malaria has significantly declined however, the effect of reusing old nets, rewashing them and treating them is yet to be established.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness of using insecticide-treated mosquito nets that have been reused after two years. The findings of the study will provide the cost effective alternative of using old but treated nets. Majority of the communities are not aware of the effects of the treated mosquito, and the rates of mosquito infections increase because some people often sleep in an untreated net (Manu et al., 2017). Therefore, this research will take into account the exiting knowledge on re-using mosquito nets at the districts of Aba. The independent variables for the analysis will consist of age, literacy, and the prevalence of information on the availability of treated mosquito nets. On the other hand, the dependent variable for the research will be the use of old treated nets. Notably, in the last decades, mosquito related cases have dropped owing to the use of ITNs. Nonetheless, the study will also look at the correlation between literacy levels and the prevalence of mosquitos.
The findings from this research will be important especially to the district of Aba that has been affected by malaria. The results of the study will assist in coming up with an appropriate solution for dealing with malaria especially in the rural areas where a majority of the people are not aware of the recycling mechanisms (Azunie, 2017). Notably, most of the rural residences are not aware of the benefits of treating and washing their nets with repellant insecticide once the effect has worn out. As a result, the rate of malaria continues rising as the nets are ineffective. Additionally, some of the residents have a negative attitude towards treating nets with the insecticide repellant due to cultural beliefs. Therefore, the findings of the research will be vital as they will assist in reducing the effect of malaria in the district of Adu while providing the necessary awareness.
The research carried out in developing countries by Zollner et al. found out that most of the residence lacked awareness of malaria and the few of the residence used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) (Zollner et al., 2014). Additionally, the attitude toward using ITNs has been found to be affected by the social and cultural beliefs of the natives. Some of the symptoms of malaria have similar symptoms like fever. Therefore, women who are pregnant are often advised against using mosquito treated nets (Zollner et al., 2014). As a result, the knowledge barriers and the misconceptions of using ITNs have contributed to the misunderstanding on the importance of the ITNs.
The awareness of ITNs varies according to the localities. Therefore, when creating personalized solutions for a community, it is essential to understand their cultural beliefs (Singh, Brown, & Rogerson, 2013). Notably, the awareness of malaria intersects with causes of malaria, symptoms, the conventional mosquito practices, and the costs of the nets. Therefore, the level of knowledge on the mosquito nets varies depending on the locality. Additionally while creating the awareness of malaria, it is essential to stress that mosquitos are the critical cause of malaria. In so doing, the ITNs will be viewed as the only defense shield against malaria. Regarding vector control, the ITNs are the most prone control agents, and they reduce the transmission of malaria by 90% (Singh et al., 2013). Furthermore, the long-lasting ITNs have been found to have a re-treatment period of 3 to five years, thus creating a long-term solution.
However, in most developing nations, the supply of the ITNs remains the major obstacle towards achieving efficiency (Nwagha et al., 214). The benefit of the usage of the ITNs can also not be ignored as a 2009 Cochrane report indicated that stillbirths and the reduction of malaria symptom had declined over the years (Admasie, Zemba, & Paulos, 2018). The annual deaths caused by malaria can also be reported to be among the barriers for economic and social development in the affected countries. Notably, the traditional preventatives malaria control methods focused mostly on the biology of the malaria-causing parasite and overlooked the human factors (Nwagha et al., 214). However, the current worldwide roll back program focuses on the ITNs and the use of drug therapy as a preventative measure. As per the schedule, it is crucial that people sleeping under the net create a consistent regime of treating the nets to prevent the people of low immunity from contracting malaria.
Therefore, while considering the preventative measures, it is essential to find out whether people are buying into the ideology of using treated nets (Admasie et al., 2018). In essence, while combating malaria and reducing the population of the mosquitos, the human behavior need to be monitored. The collaborative measures of using the ITNs and appropriate human behaviors can translate to positive outcomes. Nonetheless among some of the human behaviors indicated those communities that were at risk of malaria rarely used the ITNs which therefore infer that the prevalence of the ITNs does not mean that they are being used (Admasie et al., 2018). Pregnant mother and children under the age of fie are the most likely to succumb to malaria. Thus it is crucial that when providing the treated nets the households with the identified demographic be given priority.
Therefore, while determining the factors leading to malaria, it is also essential to decide on the factors affecting the utilization of the ITNs (Ugwu, Ezechukwu, Obi, Ugwu, & Okeke, 2013). Additionally, other emerging factors lead to the inconsistency of the treated nets such as lack of proper education on when to treat the nets and the seasonality of malaria. In most developing countries malaria is prevalent during the rainy season due to the stagnant water and uncultivated environment. Therefore while considering the effectiveness of the ITNs, proper knowledge of other factors should also be given the communities (Ugwu et al., 2013). Notably, the households that correctly use ITNs were found to be least affected by malaria.
The health bureaus should not only focus on the provision of the treated nets but also capitalize on the extensions vices such as education (Ugwu et al., 2013). More so, additional studies should also be conducted on the geographic location of the affected areas. Such factors will enable to determine other unforeseeable variable and provide tailor-made solutions that fit the localities. In all the affected areas, the attitude towards the chemicals used for treating the nets reduced the size, and the lack of access for nets was found to be among the factors that influenced the use of ITNs (Teklemariam, Awoke, Dessie, & Weldegebreal, 2015). Therefore with the focus of eradicating the malaria problem, the governments of the affected countries have to take up an active role in the replacement of treated nets and providing better access to ITNs. Additionally, health education should be among the primary emphasis of the affected regions Bazirutwabo, 2018). In so doing, it will be easier to reduce the disparities in the population that is not aware of the practices of re-using nets.
The research focuses on the effect of treating nets and the after two years when the insecticide has worn out. The analysis expounds on the themes of the unavailability of the nets and the lack of sufficient education on the treated nets in the rural regions. Additionally, the research looks at the attitude of the people the affected areas particularly the social, cultural beliefs. When all the themes are combined, they intersect to provide a conceptualized outlook of the research question.
Research Question(s) and Hypotheses
According to the Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey, there was a 12% drop in the number of children (6-59 months) who tested positive for Malaria in the rural areas of Nigeria in 2015 as compared to 2010. What are the contributing factors to this drop?
According to the Malaria Indicator Survey 2015, some of the reasons that lead to pregnant women in the rural areas to fail to use mosquito nets are: 42% felt it was too hot for their comfort, 13% stated that there are no mosquitoes, 9% felt that it is itchy, 9% stated that they cannot hang the net, 6% stated that the insecticide made the net to smell bad, and 4% felt it was too small. What are some of the existing solutions that can address some of these problems, leading to an increase in the number of people using mosquito nets in the household as a measure to reduce cases of Malaria in rural Nigeria?
According to NDHS and NMIS surveys from 2003 to 2015, there have been varying trends in how pregnant women, children and household members have used ITNs.
- Between 2003 and 2008 there was a slow progress in the use of ITNs. Why?
- Between 2008 and 2010, there was a sharp incline in the use of ITNs in the three groups. Why?
- Why was there a sharp decline between 2010 and 2013, and a sharp incline between 2013 and 2015?
- Why do the three groups respond in the same manner in these surveys?
Nature of the Study
The researcher will employ a systematic review to collect data that will be used in this study. A Boolean search string will be created using keywords such as 'malaria,' 'rural Nigeria' 'morbidity,' 'mortality,' 'treated nets,' 'untreated nets,' 're-used treated nets,' 'malaria infections,' and 'malaria transmission.' These keywords will be combined using brackets, 'OR,' and 'AND' to create a Boolean search string that will mainly be used in the PubMed database. The researcher will mainly focus on randomized controlled trials and clinical trials from the results that will be generated from the Boolean search. The researcher will then conduct a review of the existing studies and discuss their findings in relation to the problem statement and research questions of this study.
Secondary Data Types and Sources of Information
The possible sources of information that the study will refer to include papers that have address the morbidity of malaria in rural Aba District. It will focus on the ones that address the preventive measures, especially the human-related actions. The research will also consult sources that have statistics regarding the topic. The secondary sources of information used for the investigation will include peer-reviewed journals from credible databases such as ProQuest and EBSCOhost.
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Research Proposal Paper Sample on the Effectiveness of Using Mosquito Nets to Prevent the Menace of Malaria. (2022, Nov 04). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/research-proposal-paper-sample-on-the-effectiveness-of-using-mosquito-nets-to-prevent-the-menace-of-malaria
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