Chapter 3 - Methodology
This chapter will discuss the methodology study utilized in this research. This discussion will be comprised of research approach, sample, research instruments, research schedule, data collection and analysis and summary.
3.1 Research Approach
There are two main classifications of educational research: Qualitative and quantitative. This research study used quantitative research. Quantitative research is further categorized into either non-experimental or experimental. In this study, the researcher concentrated on the experimental research. Experimental research included the study of the impact created by the systematized control of one variable on another variable.
The research design of this study is the quasi-experimental. Quasi experimental design means that the research lacks randomization, but it adopts other strategies to administer some control over the incidental variables. It is used, in a situation where complete classrooms are used as the control and experimental groups. Within the design of quasi experiment, post-test, pre-test design, and non-randomized control groups were selected to be applied in this research.
The reason for the selected design is due to the absolute situation in school. The schedule could not be changed just due to this research study. Classes could also not be re-organized just because of the research. In this situation, it is important to retain the groups as they had been initially organized into classes or other earlier formed complete groups (Aray, 2002).
Both treatment and control clusters were administered the same prior-test during the exercise. Though, the experimental treatment was administered to the experimental group only. After-test was accorded to both treatment and control clusters again following the treatment. It is indicated in the table 3.1 below:
Non-organized Control Group, After-Test, and Prior-Test Design
Group Prior-Test Independent Factor After-Test
Experimental Z1 W Z1
Control Z2 --- Z2
Z1- The dependent factor prior control of the independent factor W.
Z2- The dependent factor following the control of the independent factor W.
Table 3.1: Non-Organized Control Group, Post-Test, Pre-Test Design of Quasi-Experimental Design (Ary, 2002).
3.1.1 Research Procedures
This research was carried out through Quasi-experimental design. Quasi experimental lacks randomization and is used when complete classroom is used as the control and experimental groups. Within the design of quasi-experiment, non-organized control groups, post-test, and pre-test design were selected to be employed in this research.
The table below will indicate the research procedure of the control group in a sequence from top to bottom.
60 sample from S.M.K Jugra, Selangor. (Form Four Students)
30 students for the control group.
Teaching using traditional way-Chalk and Talk.
Analyze if there is a compelling comparison for the average score
The table below will indicate the research procedure of the treatment group in a sequence from top to bottom.
60 sample from S.M.K Jugra, Selangor. (Form Four Students)
30 students for the treatment group.
Teaching and learning by using music.
Analyze if there is significant difference for the mean score.
3.2 Research Sample
This research employed non-randomized control group to be the research sampling. Use of music which was the teaching aid in this research study was carried out with form four students at S.M.K Jugra, Selangor. The school is the located in the Selangor. 522 is the total population of form four students. However, there were 60 participants in this research. They were separated into two clusters: the experimental and control group. Each group had 30 students.
These students were selected on the merit that they are not interested in learning English language and they are dormant in classroom participation compared to other subjects. They were also from different cultures. The students selected will look to be similar because random appointment of students was not allowed in this research design.
Class Category Number of Students
4S Control Group 30
4T Treatment Group 30
Table 3.2: Sample of Form Four Students From
3.3 Research Instruments
3.3.1 Teaching Module
A number of visual music was used in this research study. During this research, the music played covered the fundamentals of English language. All of these music clips were utilized to enhance the students’ learning process. Only the experimental group was administered the music clips. There were 5 periods of 35 minutes English –lesson week.
3.3.2 Achievement Test
The prior-test and after-test were fair and in structure form. For the prior-test and after-test, the participants had been approved on the plot summary, false and true statements, characteristics and short feedback questions.
In order to acknowledge the English performance of the students and their understanding of the language, the same prior test and the test after were administered to the control and treatment group. For post-test, the arrangement of test-items was mixed up. After the tests, the researcher compiled the marks attained by the both groups, then created a data analysis and differentiated the achievement between the control cluster and treatment cluster.
The achievement test was divided into four parts:
Part I: Organizing systematically the occurrences in the narrative music
Part II: Answering questions with choices A, B, C and D.
Part III: Describing the actions and characters in the narrative music
Part IV: Responding with True or False answers
Questionnaires were also administered to the experimental group. There were few easy questions about the individuals’ details and also the participants learning interest and satisfaction. The questionnaire is comprised of two parts:
Part A: Personal Details
Part B: Participants learning interest and satisfaction
3.4 Research Schedule
This study was carried out in S.M.K Jugra for two weeks, with five periods each week. Each period took 35 minutes.
1st -liaise with the authority
-Get permission from the school
2nd -Same pre-test will be given to the control group and treatment group.
3rd – 4th (For Experimental group)
-Teaching using a number of music clips
(For Control group)
-The English teacher of the class teaches as usual, in the ordinary classroom condition.
** The English lessons were the same in both classes.
5th -Same after-test will be given to the experimental cluster and control cluster
3.5 Data Collection and Analysis
After the experimental research, the data were compiled to be analyzed and interpreted. This educational research used quantitative analysis. Analysis data in quantitative study is the data that requires being analyzed using different statistical processes, for instance, the inferential statistic and descriptive statistics (Ary, 2002). Descriptive statistic reveals the scores, frequency, percentage, and mean score of the whole population in the research study. Inferential statistics approves the hypotheses stated for the research. The statistical tool used to analyze data will be statistical package for social science for Windows version 11.5 (SPSS v11.5).
Average Score Perception
0-1.26 Very Bad
3.27-4.01 Very Affirmative
Table 3.4: Interpretation of Mean Score
3.5.1 Achievement Test
The data compiled were from the marks attained by the control and experimental group. The data was collected by accumulating scores from prior-test and after-test. After which the T-test will be utilized to differentiate the comparison between the two mean scores.
Group Test Amount Mean Interactive deviation Value-t
Figure 3.5.1: Table for Comparison between the prior-test and after-test
The questionnaire has two parts: Personal details and respondents’ learning interest and satisfaction. Likert scoring scale was used to mark this questionnaire. The participants were supposed to mark the appropriate figure for each of question to complete the scale. Weights are allocated to each letter, for the purpose of scoring the scale.
Strongly Contend (SC) 1
Contend (C) 2
Doubtful (D) 3
Accept (A) 4
Strongly Accept (SA) 5
Figure 3.5.2: Likert Scoring Scale
60 students participated in this research for quantitative experimental study. The participants were selected non-randomly. Data compiling was carried out by using a standardized questionnaire, achievement test (prior test and after-test), and an educating program. The students’ learning interest and satisfaction was determined by the questionnaires used. The prior-test and after-test was used to approve the effect of using music in teaching and learning. The data collected from the prior-test and after-test were examined and determined by using descriptive statistics which reveals the scores, mean score, frequency and percentage of the study.
It is allegedly indicated that there is a significant effect on student’s learning when music is used in teaching and learning. The students also realize that they can learn English language in another interesting method. This also extensively proves that there is a meaningful correlation between the use of music in teaching students and students’ participation in lesson which consequently affects the student’s achievement.
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