The following is an annotated bibliography that comprises a truncated list of references that explicitly highlights the key reasons that touch on the concepts of liberty. The journals provide rich literature on different concepts of liberty. A collection of journals is to provide comprehensive information that would make the citizen fully understand their liberties and what need to be done to ensure the citizen and government do not misuse their liberties.
Bragues, G. (2006). Richard rorty's postmodern case for liberal democracy: A critique. Humanitas, 19, 158+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=nysl_me_gilllib&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA165445145&asid=69ef80e7eef16a1e931ee1b659b765b1
The author argues that the fundamental of any democratic state is in the protection of rights of all human beings. He points out that citizen must have the right to life and must be allowed to exercise their opinion without fear. Also, they must be given equal standing before the law and due process to be followed in the criminal proceeding. However, his literature argues that the rights mentioned above can only be secured if the people are allowed to choose their political leaders. He further argued that liberal democracy demands that institutions should have separated powers that are regulated by checks and balances. His opinion on the liberty is the same as that of Swan. His literature is very useful as it provides insights on the need for liberal democracy.
Brown, V. (2001). Self-government: The master trope of republican liberty. Monist, 84(1), 60. Retrieved from https://libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=4218521&site=ehost-live
The author points out that a numbers of philosophers have classified republican liberty as a negative concept of liberty. He further stated that the philosophers had classified the mentioned liberty as an extended and an elaborate of the concept of liberty. According to them, republican liberty and negative liberty should be classified as one concept of liberty. But Brown completely differed with them; he said the two are different both in structures and application. The information provided by the author is useful as it brings out the distinct between the two concepts of liberty.
Costa, M. V. (2004). Political liberalism and the complexity of civic virtue. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 42(2), 149-170. Retrieved from https://libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=18297317&site=ehost-live
The author has taken a debate one the extensive interpretation of the liberal tradition. He points out that many philosophers have offered criticism to the interpretation liberal tradition as compared to the few who have defended it. In his opinion, he argued that the interpretation certainly replicates the opinion of only one group of liberal thinkers but it wrong when it is perceived as a representation of the entire liberal tradition. According to the author, the interpretation of liberal tradition should mean citizens should enjoy basic liberty such as freedom of speech, conscious but it must be accompanied by interference, law, to ensure these rights do not affect others. His literature is very useful since it guarantees the freedom of a person should not affect other people.
Four essays on liberty, by isaiah berlin[a]. (2012). Political Quarterly, 83, 361-362. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.02404_19
The literature of the author primarily focuses on the two concepts of liberty. In his work, Berlin did not pay much attention to the distinction between the negative and positive liberty. He ultimately defends the negative liberty since it is through this liberty that individual can exercise his/her freedom without coercion. His argument is similar to that of Rosenthal-Pubul since the two authors both advocates for negative liberty. His literature is very helpful because it provides useful information as to why the modern society should embrace negative liberty.
FREIMAN, C. (2012). Equal political liberties. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 93(2), 158-174. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0114.2012.01422.x
The author has a problem with the political equality. He argues that it is compatible with unfairness in the value of political freedom. According to the literature, individuals may change their economic advantage into political advantage. Freiman, therefore, suggests that the political inequalities can be solved by limiting inequalities in the ways of having a political power for individual gain. He further recommends that for a success of political equality then measures should be put in place to restrict economic inequality. His literature is useful because it open one's eye on what need to be done to avoid the misuse of economic and political advantage
Krishnamurthy, M. (2013). Completing rawls's arguments for equal political liberty and its fair value: The argument from self-respect. Canadian Journal of Philosophy,43(2), 179-205. doi:10.1080/00455091.2013.816177
The author argues that many philosophers have openly criticized the literature of Rawls, they claim that it is demeaning to values of democracy. The author further points out that the critic of Rawls had a problem with the inclusion of political liberties in the principle of equal basic liberty. Despite these criticisms, the author completely upholds Rawls idea of inclusion of political liberty. He argues that the literature of Rawls did not mention right to vote to be among the necessary liberties. The author argues Rawls had a reasonable ground to include political liberty, more so those that are democratic in nature. I am in support of the author since the principle of basic liberty is incomplete without the inclusive of political liberty.
Rosenthal-Pubul, A. (2016). Reflections on ancient and modern freedom. Modern Age, 58, 35+.
The author embraces the negative liberty in which an individual is free to actualize whatever he desires without impediment from external coercion such as irrational desires or passion. His literature points out that the success of negative liberty is when an individual rationally uses what brings moral excellence. He argues that a righteous man acts without coercion but also in harmony with the right reason. He admonishes those who take advantage of negative liberty to engage in the immoral act. His literature on liberty is completely different from Swan and Bragues who views liberty as the transfer of power from the citizen to the government. The information provided by the author is useful as it clearly explains how negative liberty can be effectively when individual applies rational mind in his/her choice.
Swan, K. (2003). Three concepts of political liberty. Journal of Markets & Morality, 6, 117+.Retrievedfrom http://go.galegroup.com.libezcnr.idm.oclc.org/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=nysl_me_gilllib&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA186469614&asid=afc26bf8c9edeade672213d9a40b8fc8
The author of the articles strong advocates for Republican political liberty in which freedom is depicted by non-domination. According to his literature, the said liberty espouses for the rule of law rather than that of a man. He further points out that this liberty allows the citizen to elect politicians in public offices with a defined tenure, clear separation of executive powers from the legislative, as this give room for checks and balances. He, therefore, implores the state to secure non-domination among its citizenry. The information provided by the author is helpful as it provides a clear understanding of the topic. His literature has also changed my understanding of liberty, and I now believe that the power lies in the people, not the government.
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