Political Ideologies after WW1 and Great Depression - Essay Sample

Published: 2024-01-27
Political Ideologies after WW1 and Great Depression - Essay Sample
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  History Political science War World War 1 The Great Depression
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 848 words
8 min read

The First World War (WWI) is a global war that began in Europe and spread to other parts of the World, including the United States. The War began on 28th July 1914 and ended on 11th November 1918. Historians generally agree that WW1 was tremendously ferocious in its magnitude and destruction. The factors such as the arms race, imperialism, militarism, and nationalism greatly contributed to the War. The War was extremely bloody as it caused the estimated death of more than 10 million soldiers and another 20 million seriously wounded. At the end of WW1, the warring nations and parties signed the Versailles Treaty to enhance global peace and tranquility. The involved nations included Germany, Italy, Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.

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WW1 indeed had huge impacts that were multifaceted. It is generally agreed that the post-WW1 political developments. had economic, social, and political impacts. Politically, WW1 led to the development of the great depression in 1929. The depression was triggered by the political decisions made after WW1. These included the war reparations that Germany and its allies were supposed to give as compensation for the War. Similarly, the protectionism policy, like the imposition of the congressional tariffs on the European goods, led to the collapse of the Stock Market in 1929. These two events led to the development of several competing political ideologies among nations. The ideologies served as the guide to political actions. They provided pictures of modern society that demonstrated how the desired changes could be brought and avoid undesirable changes.

WW1 led to the destruction of the empires and instead created numerous new nation-states. Ideally, this move encouraged the independence movement in Europe's colonies and forced the US to become an important part of the World's powers. One major political ideology that developed, as a result, was Soviet Communism. Ideally, communism was a political ideology that was embraced by the Soviet Union and its allies. Notably, the diplomatic alliances as well as the promises made during the WW1. The development of this political ideology was aimed at balancing the power approach to global relations. New ideologies were fast embraced by several groups in different parts of the World. For instance, the Bolsheviks that rose to power in Russia and fascism that triumphed in Italy quickly adopted Russian communism.

Coincidently, the socialist revolution broke out in Germany at the end of WW1. Historically, the German Revolution occurred between 1918 and 1919 and led to establishment of the left-leaning Weimar Republic. This territory lasted until Adolf Hitler seized power within the early 1930s. The majority of historians believe that Germany's defeat in WW1 and the harsh terms imposed by the Treaty of Versailles contributed to the emergence of Hitler and the Nazi Party. As a result of this defeat, the Austro-Hungarian Empire disintegrated into several independent states that included Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, and Czechoslovakia.

Additionally, the Ottoman Empire was also subjected to the same nature of the division. The portions of the former empire were later placed under French control and that of Great Britain. The dissatisfaction with the WW1 deliberations led to the emergence of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

As part of this revolt, the empire of Russia collapsed and was replaced with the socialist government under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The new states that emerged in Northeastern Europe also adopted this ideology, thereby making it one of the dominant ideologies in the World. These nations included Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, and Latvia.

Although the US did not participate in the WW1, historians generally agree that it emerged as a superpower and began to control many parts of the World through its imperialist ideologies. It is critical to understand the mandates, territorial concessions, and independence movements that occurred throughout the World. The US was determined to spread its capitalist ideology through imperialism. As a party that was interested in the League of Nations, the US attempted to use the League of Nations to exert its influence in other parts of the World. The specific colonies of German East Africa were subsequently portioned to Belgium, Portugal, and France. The US intervention and the President's Woodrow's Wilson diplomatic leadership translated Europe into a safe place. The US left the WW1 with a huge confidence boosts.

The great depression was an important event that influenced the political climate and ideologies at that time. The superpowers and their allies wanted to use the opportunity that arose, such as the stock market collapse. Thus, the US embraced both the capitalist and nationalists' behaviors to promote a strong nation that included the powerful military and unity citizens. The capitalist ideology mainly involved the situation where the economy is largely free from the control of the state.

The communist on the other hand was an ideology where the communist state administered from the centre and the society being controlled by the communist party government. The desires to make the world nations conform to this led to the development and adoption of these ideologies.


Tignor, Robert, Jeremy Adelman, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: Volume 2. WW Norton & Company, 2017.

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