|Categories:||Race Discrimination Islamophobia|
Traditional profiling is a perception based on inaccurate stereotypes regarding certain racial minority groups, religious groups or ethnic groups participation in certain criminal activities. Ever since the September 11 terrors attack, Muslims have been racially profiled as they are perceived to be either terror criminals or terror sympathisers. It is unfortunate that even the police and other security bodies have fallen for such incredibly ignorant thought. Therefore, many have been dragged into believing that racial profiling of Muslims is an effective way of fighting terrorism in the United States (Ramirez, Hoopes, and Lai Quinlan, p36). On the other hand, there is also a belief that African American are violent and criminal in nature. For such reason, the security organisations and the American public carry around the habit of racial profiling. However, I firmly believe that racial profiling is not effective in fighting the war on terror or in any other criminal activity.
Racial profiling is one of the contemporary global issues that even Americans cannot escape. I am convinced that racial discrimination of Muslim is an awkward attitude and that those holding such perception against the minority races in America should stop. They should know that the behaviour is not only a threat to our security but also, it demeans the American value and character (Lund, p.43. It is an effective tactic for a law enforcer because it tends to cloud his or her judgement about an individual (Lund, p.12). Eventually, it inhibits an accurate investigation into a crime, potential crime and the criminal. Therefore, proceeding with such an idea even in the fight against terrorism is only disastrous. It is a fact that even Raymond Kelly, the New York police commissioner agrees on. In reference to the 9/11 attack, he describes the plane highjackers. They shaved their beards, went to bars in the United States and blended well with the American nationals. They were part of the America dream. It shows those terrorists are not ignorant. They can decide to walk dress up like a Jew and walk into the streets and surprisingly they will not be profiled as Muslim terrorists (Harcourt, p3). Hence, John declares that racial profiling is stupid because it assumes that terrorists cannot adapt to the changing circumstances thus putting authorities of security one-step behind terrorists
Mr Raymonds testimony is proof that racial profiling focuses solely on unstable traits. That is such attributes can easily be switched for others. It is precisely a weak-point that was used by the jihadist who orchestrated the London bombings. They used two British citizens both Pakistani origin and a German citizen who was a Jamaican descent. Also after realising that there was much scrutiny of Pakistan and Arab origin terrorist, they switched to East Africa to recruit terrorists. For instance, in 2004, a female suicide bomber of African origin blew herself at a railway substation in Moscow (Harcourt, p5). Hence, there is neither practicable evidence nor a strong theoretical reason proofing that racial profiling is an efficient measure for war against terrorism. Instead, it has resulted to an increased in terrorist attacks. It is because, we have used incident of terror attacks, orchestrated by an evil man Osama Bin Laden who claimed to represent the views of the Muslim population to paint all Muslims as terrorists (Ramirez, Hoopes, and Lai Quinlan, p14). However, to some of us who are stuck with the idea of racial profiling, whom do you think you can profile in the streets of New York City. Forty percent of its population is non-Americans. Hence, it is evidenced that potential terrorist can manipulate the citys diversity to disguise him or herself as an American.
Other than racial profiling being ineffective when dealing with security issues, the impact of such attitude is consequential to the minority races. It destroys them. One of the most adverse effects is the accumulative attitude of cynics towards the criminal justice system. Owing to such scepticism, the minority like the Muslim race are likely to respond wrongly to law enforcers (Persico, 83). They tend to act violently out of retaliation for the past unjust social profiling or for fear of being harmed by the law enforcer or any individual(s) targeting them. Consequently, they alienate themselves from the law enforcers since their confidence in the police force is reduced. They cannot trust the law enforcers to discharge justice on fair grounds. Such attitude amounts to a crisis of confidence towards the United States Criminal Justice System Persico, 127). Also, a racial profiling officer is likely to respond with force when dealing with a minority. Such scenarios tend to create hostility between the police officer and the minority Muslim, African American or any other minority communities.
If placed under the same circumstances, I think my race and I would act the same if we are perceived negatively and treated unfairly. Therefore, I cannot blame the African America youths for acting hostile towards the law enforcers. It is because their hostility is justified and has been cultivated by law enforcers who insist on profiling African Americans as criminals by nature. Whenever they encounter a police officer, they are perceived as harbourers of illegal activities (Lund, p.10). They are arbitrarily shot dead and even serve more prison sentences than the White Americans for similar crimes. Also, with the current gun violence directed towards the police and the public by the minority races rises across the world, the situation should serve as a red flag against racial discrimination. Most of such cases have been trace to hate harboured by the victims towards the governments which they think demean and frustrate their races.
The behaviour of racial profiling among the public and law enforcer must therefore desist. For such trend to stop, all federal states and law enforcement agency should ban the ethnic and religious profiling as a model for crime investigation (Persico,p.53). The ban must be legally enforceable and must apply to private citizens too. Legal implications such as disciplinary actions against officers and citizens who engage in racial profiling should be enforced. Moreover, there should be proper legal procedures for a complainant to launch a claim for racial profiling. Besides, the investigative authority should categorise cases of racial profiling as urgent in the course of the investigation (Persico,p.68). Finally, due to the many years of cultivating racial misconception, it is imperative that the law enforcement workforce is diversified so that racial profiling is first dealt with within the workforce itself.
In conclusion, that racial or religious profiling is an ineffective way of curbing terrorism and any other criminal activity. Focusing on profiling criminals racially only worsen a countrys security. It is because racial traits can be manipulated to give a false judgement to the law enforcers. Hence, has the police focus into profiling terrorist racially, terrorist resort to changing tact to avoid being caught and proceed to perpetuate their criminal acts. Moreover, racial profiling impact negatively on the affected. The minority tend to respond violently towards the law enforcers thus creating distrusts between the two parties. Therefore, such habit should be halted through legal frameworks that are enforceable.
Harcourt, Bernard E. "Muslim Profiles Post-9/11: Is Racial Profiling an Effective Counterterrorist Measure and Does it Violate the Right to be Free From Discrimination?." U Chicago Law & Economics, Olin Working Paper288 (2006).
Lund, Nelson. "Conservative Case against Racial Profiling in the War on Terrorism, The." Alb. L. Rev. 66 (2002): 329.
Persico, Nicola. "Racial profiling, fairness, and effectiveness of policing."The American Economic Review 92.5 (2002): 1472-1497.
Ramirez, Deborah A., Jennifer Hoopes, and Tara Lai Quinlan. "Defining racial profiling in a post-September 11 world." Am. Crim. L. Rev. 40 (2003): 1195.
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