Osteoarthritis (OA) is an idiopathic disorder developed as a result of bones being remodeled or the degeneration of articular cartilage. According to Olivotto et al. (2015), this happens when the cartilage matrix breaks down leading to the growth and development of fissures and fibrillation a process that is characterized by the active response of the inflammatory cells and the chondrocytes surrounding the tissues. The first deal is focused on the reaction of the protease for the occurrence of this matrix digestion.
Based on the current knowledge, Osteoarthritis has been linked to the involvement of matrix metalloproteases which contain three groups found in the human articular tissue (gelatinases, stromelysins, and collagenases). This encourages the alteration of thus involving the participation of the subchondral bone and synovial membrane through the influence of the abnormal osteoblast. The significant risk factors of osteoarthritis include; advancing age, obesity, occupations especially manual labor, and female gender.
Moreover, the disorder is characterized by symptoms like chronic, gradual worsening of pain, and insidious stiffness. The symptoms are mostly recorded in the small joints of the feet and hands, the knee joint, and the hip joint.
How the Maladaptive and Physiological Responses of Osteoarthritis Differ
According to Trouvin and Perrot (2018), it is healthier to practice psychological interventions to osteoarthritis than exercising the maladaptive reactions as they are more harmful and ineffective. Psychological response strategies like stoicism to curb depression, wishful thinking, problem-solving responses, and policy of refocusing and emotion-focused are effective in mitigating the adverse effects of osteoarthritis psychologically. However, this differs when responding to the disorder with a maladaptive strategy as it suggests for responses like avoidance behaviors such as shielding under the drinking strategy, exercising self-control, accepting the load of the disease or seeking social support which is more ineffective.
Types of Drugs Prescribed to Patients in The Treatment of Osteoarthritis Symptoms
The omega-3 fatty acids; it has sourced supplements from fish oil or the oily fish; the Omega-3s help improve function and relieve pain (Sahayam, Kulandaiammal & Prakash, 2016). Acupuncture helps in reducing pain as well as increasing or enhancing capacity, mainly in the knee osteoarthritis victims.
Analgesics; they help reduce pain; however, they do not help in inflammation reduction as they work on changing the body's response to pain. Counterirritants; these ointments contain ingredients like capsaicin and menthol which when rubbed on patients' joints, help stop pain signals from joint to the brain.
According to Sahayam et al. (2016), NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) play two central roles in reducing both inflammation and pain to an affected person. They are taken in pills that include naproxen, aspirin, celecoxib, and ibuprofen.
Olivotto, E., Otero, M., Marcu, K. B., & Goldring, M. B. (2015). Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis: canonical NF-kB/IKKv-dependent and kinase-independent effects of IKKa in cartilage degradation and chondrocyte differentiation. RMD Open, 1(Suppl 1), e000061. DOI: 10.1136/rmdopen-2015-000061
Sahayam, J. S. A., Kulandaiammal, M., & Prakash, M. (2016). The pattern of drug prescribing in osteoarthritis patients attending the orthopedic outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 6(5), 14-17. DOI https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v6i5.1312
Trouvin, A. P., & Perrot, S. (2018). Pain in osteoarthritis. Implications for optimal management. Joint Bone Spine, 85(4), 429-434. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.08.002.
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