|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||American Civil War Political science American history|
Partisan is the description of a system of governance whereby individuals are affiliated to particular political parties. The political parties that are present at a given time have their preferences, which in most cases, are slightly opposite to those of the other parties. Therefore, a member of a party is expected to subscribe to the ideologies adopted by the political party. The United States as not always had political parties being used in its system of governance. (Pasley, 2002).The system was adopted after considering the benefits that would be achieved when parties were used for management. Various reasons led to the development of partisan politics in the early republic. In 1787, through the constitutional convention, the need for the creation of a stable government was highlighted. That would only be achieved when there was a limitation of the democracy that was available at that time. There was the freedom of creation of an infinite number of parties, each with its preferences. There was the likelihood of more power struggles as a result of each political party having its own leadership and choices. Therefore, there was a constitutional convention, which had the idea of curbing the excess powers that were being practiced.
The other reason for the development of the multiparty system was the French revolution, which started in 1789. That had the effect of affecting the partisan state in the United States. That was because, at that time, there were powerful ties between the United States and France. As part of the French revolution, ere was divided into support from the United States. That was because of the ideologies and preferences that they had. For example, when the French attacked Britain, there was divided opinion regarding which country America was to support. For example, Washington was for the idea that there should be a neutral treatment for both countries. That was meant to enhance better relations with Britain and France. However, the federalists and republicans preferred taking sides. Therefore, there was a difference in opinion about which side America would support. That has an effect of increasing the division among the ruling parties. In the long run, that also contributed towards the partisan states in the United States. That was because the political parties had different preferences regarding their course of action. That had the effect of motivating the formation of the partisan system, based on various preferences in governance.
The other conflict in leadership that was the reason for the partisan system is the financial preferences that the leaders had. For example, there is a highlight of the whiskey rebellion that occurred in 1790. The government wanted to impose a tax on distilled spirits, which was part of their fiscal policy. However, the republicans were of a contrary opinion. They reduced to comply with the federalists and thought that there should be no tax on the distilled spirits. As a result of different preferences, there was the militia that was formed to enhance the choices against paying the charge. Therefore, as a result of the sharp differences in policy, the partisan idea was seen as a better way to have better governance. That is because there would be the execution of strategies in unison, and the resistance would be minimal. On that basis, there was the adoption of partisan politics. That was based on the concerns and conflicts that were being seen in leadership. The biased state was seen to have a better system of governance, which would benefit the nation in multiple ways.
Development of the Second Party System
The Whig and Democratic parties opposed one another to gain control of the system of governance in the United States. Their significant difference was highlighted in the goals they had in the order of management that each adopted and preferred. The Whig had the common goal of creating tariffs in the American economy. That would have the effect of protecting the national bank, leading to improved trade. Moreover, the taxes would have the effect of enhancing subsidies by the government, which would then lead to the improvement of local infrastructure, hence improve the economy in the long run. The contributors to the party included James Taylor, Henry Clay and Millard Fillmore. On the other hand, the democratic parties were against the issue of manipulating the market through tariffs as it would give rise to aristocrats. Their primary idea was the empowerment of the ordinary citizen in their crafts, which was majorly farming. When the people were empowered in their art, there would be overall development because they would earn from the utility that they created for the various sectors of the economy. The major contributors were Andre Jackson, John Tyler and Martin Van Buren. The differences between the Whig and Democratic parties were based on the ideologies which they preferred regarding the state of the economy.
The second party system had the effect of increasing the degree of democratization in American politics. That is because of the various changes that it helped bring along. First, it was through the democrats, as they preferred the sovereignty of the people in America. That was consistent with the primary goals of a democratic state. That was whereby the people would be empowered to have a voice. On that basis, there was increased involvement of people in the political process, which in turn led to more democratization in the long run. Furthermore, the Democrats stood by the peoples' preferences in demonstrations, which increased the choice of a governance system that was based on the preference of the people, further strengthening democracy. Furthermore, there was the advanced call for majority rule, a pillar upon which democracy in any system of governance is based. The abolishment of the harsh treatment of native Americans was the principal way through which the whig parties advanced democratization. That was through looking out for the interests of the people, a characteristic of democracy. Moreover, they championed anti-slavery, which was a desire for many people; and won their support, leading to democratization. Therefore, it is evident that the whig parties supported democratization in the United States.
Major Movements and Events That Led To the Civil War
Proslavery is the idea that was adopted by some individuals, which described slavery as having positive attributes. That was because the keeping of slaves had the effect of providing free labor in various sectors of the economy (Ericson, 2000). With free labor, there was the precondition of goods, which would be sold and enhancing economic growth. On the other side, there was the abolitionist argument. That developed the stance that the idea of slavery was not desirable. That was because of the mistreatment that the slaves were exposed to. The abolitionists were for the idea that the slaves were human, and they deserved to be treated with dignity. Moreover, they were for the idea that the slaves have equal rights, just like the other people in society. They adopted the preference that would lead to the abolition of the concept of slavery in the United States. The two ideas were common in the antebellum period, as people embraced different ideologies regarding human welfare.
Westward expansion played various roles in increasing the sectional tensions in the United States. That was because the North and South had different ideologies regarding the issue of slaves. With the westward expansion, there was an increase in the number of slaves. That was because there was a difference in ideology regarding slavery; there was an increase in tension. That was because each party had its preference, which they wanted to practice. Therefore, the stance that each party stood for brought about disagreements, leading to more tension in the long run. Multiple events contributed to the outbreak of the civil war. First, there was the issue of slavery, which was controversial at that time; hence the different opinions led to more tension. Moreover, there was the case of Dred Scott; regarding the rights of slaves, which fueled the civil war. The other cause was when the voters in Kansas rejected the Lecompton Constitution, making it a free state and further fueling the contributing to the civil war.
Ericson, D. F. (2000). The Debate over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in Antebellum America. NYU Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Sx7pPHu5vs0C&oi=fnd&pg=PP9&dq=pro-slavery+and+abolitionist+arguments+of+the+antebellum+period.++&ots=UPuohjskHS&sig=_9jVUJLj5LTyvHjQhhKYtwT8P8k&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=pro-slavery%20and%20abolitionist%20arguments%20of%20the%20antebellum%20period.&f=false
Pasley, J. L. (2002). The tyranny of printers: Newspaper politics in the early American republic. University of Virginia Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8xVMxjD0bv4C&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=rise+of+partisan+politics+in+the+Early+Republic+america+&ots=BUVk_D0AK3&sig=VLfd-fYPjjTqibljqZzvVoGDCNI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rise%20of%20partisan%20politics%20in%20the%20Early%20Republic%20america&f=false
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