Part 1: Introduction, thesis statement, research objectives, and hypotheses.

Published: 2019-08-30 07:00:00
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The main towns in Saudi Arabia have a fair share of hospital care accessibility: Riyadh constituting the major towns. Riyadh also delights in having a big population comparative to the total population distributed in the major townsAl-Gabbani (1991). The distribution of health care in this rather big population is of contention since it is uneven. GIS technology of spatial data analysis proved essential to dene all hospital demand location and produces an output showing city districts that are providing remarkable demand to the selected hospital (AbdulkaderA Murad et al. (2007) 879889). The incorporation of GIS in analysis is a big milestone that aids in planning and also overviews knowledge of the areas of usage.

The current research is aimed at providing insights and solutions to the locational distribution of various health facilities using the GIS in Riyadh City clearly entailing the ways of conduct and the expected outcomes of the initiative. A spotlight will also be shed on the possible hindrances of using GIS in general and intricately on the case study in focus.

Research Objectives.1- To determine the importance of the application of GIS in healthcare

2- To determine the requirements of the application of GIS in healthcare

3- To overcome the obstacles of the application of GIS in healthcare

4- To establish the efficiency of the geographical distribution of government health services in the city of Riyadh using GIS.

5- To determine the future needing for building new health services.

Hypothesis 1.

The first assumption of the truth is that these health centres can be detected using spectral/wavelength radiations from the satellites using high spatial resolution imagery.

These goes to enhance the study implications of being able to analyse them from a spatial kind of setting.

Hypothesis 2. Healthcare distribution is complemented by a good access to infrastructure. With a well-traversed communication system and transport network, health centre gives services that are top-notch, and patients can demand these health facilities NIL the services.

Part 2: Literature Review Outline

TitleGeographical Distribution of Public Health Services (Hospitals and primary care centers) in Riyadh by using GIS

Thesis Statement:

This project determines the distribution of health care services that are in Riyadh City and outlines the benefits of incorporating GIS to improve; emergency management and disaster preparedness mandates and responsibilities.

Distribution of health centre in Riyadh

(Ahlam A. Mansour 1993)

(Al-Gabbani 1991)

(Al-Kahtani 1991)

(Al-Oteibi, Noble and Costa 1993)

(Alkadry 2015)

(Barth and Quiel 1987)

(E1-Bushra 1989)

(Shaaban and Naizy 1991)

(See 2009)

(Makky 1986)

(Al-Kahtani 1991)

GSI in practice. Has there been any positive impact of GIS use?

What array of issues has GIS been utilized well?

(Hugh M. Semple 2013)

(A. Murad 2006)

(Abdullah Emin Akay 2011)

(Du 2011)

(Lo 2010)

(Robin Haynes 2006)

(Godelieve Lynen 2007)

(Kwang-Soo Lee1 2014)

Ways to use GIS in distribution analysis.

How does GIS relate in distribution analysis?

What distribution techniques go hand in hand with GIS?

(Hugh M. Semple 2013)

(Waleed Kassab 2001)

(Abdullah Emin Akay 2011)

(A. Murad 2006)

Part 3: Focus Funnel Method Graphic

The research reveals a focus channel that reveals itself from the use of GIS as a tool of analysis. Its the view of the region of study, the past successes of use of GIS, the various relevant techniques that can be employed in the area of study and finally the conclusions of the views.

The relationships between the practice and the area of use are crucial in determining the effectiveness of the proposed development.

Riyadh is singularly analyzed in its geographical characteristics and the available health care centers and how the distributions are. This is a foundational base for the study for familiarity with the case study before any progress is made.

GIS as a tool of analysis is used to be able to understand its pros and cons over its past uses. These are analyzed from the previous literature based on the use of GIS as a main or sub-technique in an analysis.

The proposed linkages between GIS and the aspect of study (healthcare distribution in Riyadh) this narrows down the research to the relations between the proposed analysis tool and the subject matter of the case study.

The conclusion is the implications of the past literature and the current research on the analysis of the distribution of health care and the correct use of GIS in doing so.

Part 4: Literature Review.

Title: Geographical Distribution of Public Health Services (Hospitals and primary health centre) in Riyadh by using GIS.

Distribution of health centres in Riyadh

Riyadh is among the areas in Saudi Arabia that have good access to medical services. It is among the regions centrally positioned in the country.The explosive growth of Riyadh documented in the presented MOMS image is a unique example of a spectacular urbanization in a desert country. The rapid increase in population from less than 50 000 after World War II to 1.4 Mio in 1985 caused an incomprehensible spatial expansion of the city (Barth and Quiel 1987). (Al-Kahtani 1991)Revealed that Riyadh has an area of 354,444 km2 and a population density of 6.4 per km2. With that big of a community, it acts as the political hub of the country. The country also constitutes of other regions that also have access to the health centres namely the Western and the Eastern regions. Over the past few years, Riyadh has experienced erection of hospital units greatly (El-Sayed 1989) The high standards of health facilities in this booming region is depicted by its share of the national total of doctors (29%) and hospital beds (26%) (1 (Al-Gabbani 1991)991). The ratios of population per physician are 1:490 and population per bed of 1:297 (E1-Bushra 1989) are better than those in advanced industrial countries. The high urban growth rate in the country as a whole (Osama S. Algahtani 2015) suggests an intricate look at the health care distribution through remote sensing techniques aided by GIS.

Health facilities that were already established before 1970s (Al-Kahtani 1991) were out of reach of the less developed regions in the country. This implies that they were not accessible to the majority of the Kingdoms inhabitants. Considerable improvements and advancements have been realised in the infrastructure of health facilities (Barth and Quiel 1987) after the launch of the First National Development Plan in 1970, following an increased flow of oil revenues. The government oil revenues increased from just SR4,936 million in 1970 to SR312,819 million in 1980 registering a 63 fold increase. The rapid increase has enabled the central government to implement ambitious development strategies to enhance the health facilities both in the range of products and also the physical access to the facilities. In (Al-Gabbani 1991) population density and service, availability has been scrutinized keenly. The analysis revealed that within the inner circle of the city density, the majority of the land was already developed. This entails that most of the urban sections were well advanced in service accessibility. Transport in this town, however, is inefficient with a rich and rotting urban centre and disconnections to the outer areas of the city. The access to other areas of the city that can greatly benefit from the few amenities available in this capital is hindered due to the inefficiencies in the transport sector. The hospital accessibility is chained up in this problem of accessibility due to the inefficiencies. (E1-Bushra 1989) further shone the light on the distribution of the health centres with graphical representations (pp 365) of the journal. It shows than a dense collection of the available health centres was located in the N. Eastern districts of the town where most of the inhabitants are situated.

Innovative indices for quantitative analysis on the allocation of medical services and facilities (Shaaban and Naizy 1991) were developed to be able to see their scope of cover. They shed light on the framework through which available medical facilities and expertise may be reallocated to ensure better health care for all inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. This was a follow-up study to help get solutions to the growing concern of healthcare access in the country as a whole. Riyadh enjoying a high standard of medical facilities with an average workload factor of class A and a P/D ratio of 644; there is a disparity in the distribution of the medical facilities and personnel. The best distribution of the regional health facilities was found in the Central region since the four indices were above the national average (DI = 15.61%, HI = 118.5%, CI = 103.87% and BI = 114.78%). Further studies (E1-Bushra 1989) indicated that by enjoying class A of the health hierarchy, Riyadh had; 42 hospitals, 408 health centres, 4946 doctors, 8174 number of beds and over 2 million patients served. The high growth of the city (Makky 1986) has brought the need to review seriously the allocations of the facilities to the various districts in the region. The study further illustrates that even with a high workload factor of class A there is still maldistribution of these facilities in within the citys districts (EI-Sharif 1985) Outlines the major problems faced in Riyadh including the lack of access to water services. This conquers with (Shaaban and Naizy 1991) that depicts the uneven dispersion of the health care facilities in the city with a majority of the affected in the rural sections of the town. A different study (E1-Bushra 1989) stated that the country as a whole, Riyadh included leads the entire world on the levels of desalinated water with more than 2billion litres per day.

GIS in practical applications

GIS technology has been used to analyse various operations over a given geographical area. In (Al-Kahtani 1991); the Spatial Pattern of Health Facilities in Saudi Arabia: Development and Planning, the GIS has been efficiently practiced to bring out the spatial health data in various regions of the country. The spatial activity was used to show clearly the standard deviations of various physicians per 1000 people in the population(Al-Kahtani 1991 pg 431). It conquers too with (Al-Oteibi, Noble and Costa 1993) where more attention and studies should be devoted to developing health facilities in this rather lagging regions of the country (E1-Bushra 1989). Al-Kahtani based the research on the use of GSI on being able to pinpoint the distribution of the health care facilities in the country as a whole. This overview goes in line with the objective and scope of the study but differs slightly in the region of focus as a closer look at the distribution is being investigated.

According to (Kwang-Soo Lee1 2014) mobility and accessibility appeared to be decisive when people seek health care. Three factors (highway and major arterial roads along with the number of subway entrances and row houses) were statistically important in expounding on the variance of hospital distribution for individual cells. The total results indicate that GIS is the significant tool for use in the analysis and understanding location strategies, an approach that should be useful for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city. The research depicts various weakness...


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