Paper Example on Pregnant Woman Abuse

Published: 2023-04-12
Paper Example on Pregnant Woman Abuse
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Abuse
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1687 words
15 min read


In the current years, violence against women has moved for being a family or private problems to a public health issue with severe repercussions for the well-being and health of an individual. Violence against pregnant women occurs in every society within the world, but its tolerance varies from nation to nation. For example, abuse of pregnant women is experienced in developing countries, and the effects of intimate violence range from reduced intimacy and financial challenges to the increased rates of neonatal and maternal mortality and morbidity (Campo, 2015). At various times, violence might occur during pregnancy, thus affecting both the mother and child. Some of the women's life experiences, such as being young, low socio-economic status, and ethnicity, are associated with domestic violence. Woman abuse is a repeated assault by their spouses or intimate partners within a coercive control. Violence against pregnant women comprises of the physical violence that involves various actions that tend to go against the physical health or integrity of pregnant women, sexual abuse, and psychological violence. The implication of pregnancy violence ranges from delaying prenatal care, bleeding, depression, premature labor, and miscarriage.

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Theories Explaining Feminism

The radical feminist theory concentrates on the experiences and lives of women. The feminist theory provides a perspective that understands one's behavior in their social setting by focusing on women and issues that they encounter in society. Through feminism, the world aims at valuing women and confront the injustices directed to women. Family, individuals, organizations, and groups interact with each other, thus producing the potential for the oppression that is based on various gender relationships. The feminist theory sees women's abuse as a vital constellation of the social issues present in society. For example, flax associated different goals, which included understanding the power differential in men and women and power in relationship to multiple changes that can end depression (Campo, 2015). Oppression among women is termed as the absence of choices. Therefore, the lack of restrictions causes women to ignore areas where they are discriminated against or exploited, hence causing them to believe that no woman is oppressed.

Types of Feminism

The feminist theories tend to identify economic dependence, lack of education, restrictions towards sexuality, and the unequal political rights. Also, the different theories indicate the causes of oppression, such as biological differences, women's self-understanding, and economic relations. The different theories identify the situations which lead to women's oppression and how they affect women's views and actions. For example, some of the feminist theories include Marxist feminism, materialist feminism, and cultural feminism, radical and socialist feminism (Teixeira et al., 2015). Marxist feminism focuses on women's emancipation through the issues of labor production in family life as it concentrates on capitalism. Marxist theory views work as developing what is of value. Pregnant women become violated by women since they are expected to become productive at home. Also, socialist feminism tends to distinguish between different groups basing on oppression and acknowledging it through various forms. Therefore, socialism demands an end of property ownership, capitalism, and all kinds of abuse.

Risk Factors for Abuse during Pregnancy

Unintended Pregnancies

Unplanned and mistimed pregnancies increase the risk of abusing women during pregnancy. Violence affects one's right to make decisions regarding birth control and reproduction, thus leading to mistimed pregnancy (Campo, 2015). Men can see pregnancy as menace if they were not prepared, thus fueling violence. Also, pregnancy cases can lead to jealousy in a way that affects family togetherness and hence triggering violent behavior. Decision making regarding fertility issues can be improved through the introduction of better aspects and the inter-relational factors that ensure women control unwanted and mistimed pregnancies (Naved & Persson, 2008). Therefore, unintended pregnancies are correlated to an increased rate of mortality and maternal morbidity due to abortions.

Patriarchal Dominance

Families with increased cases of patriarchal domination possess a higher risk of abuse against women. Abuse can arise from a man's need to gain control and enforce power over their relationship, and pregnancy can create an impact on the power dynamics in a marriage. Pregnancy causes women to assume more control over their bodies, thus making men try and reassert control. Also, the male abusers of pregnant women hold various conventional pregnancy-related factors such as increased tiredness, reduced mobility, and might lack emotional availability (Naved & Persson, 2008). Due to the various body and emotional changes, women can fail to conduct their daily routines, thus causing their abusive spouses to become violent. Male partners might feel pressured since pregnancy increases financial dependency in marriages. Therefore, financial control through the provision of restrictions to access to money in relationships has been the causal of violence among families during pregnancy.

Verbal Abuse

Most women who report physical violence during their pregnancy are also a victim of psychological aggression and verbal abuse. In some societies, psychological abuse is an experienced kind of abuse during pregnancy. The mental abuse tends to develop control in the abusive relationships, thus developing fear, worthlessness, insecurity, and dependency among the violence victims (Naved & Persson, 2008). Therefore, violence during pregnancy causes women to develop psychological trauma and aggression before and during the pregnancy period concerning the non-abused women.

Alcohol Abuse and Social Isolation

Alcohol use among male partners increases the risk of abusing women during pregnancy. In most societies, women with partners who have drinking issues are likely to become abused in their marriages (Naved & Persson, 2008). Violence cases escalate among alcohol addicts when they are sober. Also, women who are violated during pregnancy are socially isolated from various social systems, families, and friends. A strong social system acts as a protective factor for abuse during pregnancy. The abusive partners tend to follow their partners whenever they move out, thus interrogating them upon return. Therefore, addicted alcohol users abuse their women during pregnancy, thus leading to depression due to a lack of appropriate support systems.

Sexual Proprietaries

The sexually proprietary behavior among the male partners is connected to increased risk of women violence during pregnancy. The paternal accusations of violence are associated with a higher risk of abuse among pregnant women. Men establish paternal assurance tactics like using abusive behavior to stop paternal uncertainty and have a higher chance of ensuring the children he raises are his (Naved & Persson, 2008). Also, women who are abused during pregnancy tend to carry a kid that was not a recent partner's biological kid. Therefore, women that are abused during pregnancy are mostly stalked by their partners concerning those that were not violated during pregnancy.

Cultural Risks

Immigrants are at a higher risk of encountering domestic violence due to the migratory history and the differences that arise from the norms and values of a society. Abuse of women is led by failure to follow the traditional gender norms or roles. For example, the differences that exist between the cultural norms of the United States and natives' families can lead to a shift in social function, thus leading to abuse (Teixeira et al., 2015). Through gender, most societies assert their ethical superiority in racist communities. Individuals who do not have control of their lives end up controlling women's sexuality, thus indicating that not every norm becomes lost. Therefore, to avoid violence in societies, women tend to adhere to the set traditions and norms of their culture.

Health Problems Related to Pregnant Women Abuse

Battered women tend to experience physical health effects, thus affecting their health status. For example, violence against pregnant women might cause injuries on one to face, head, abdomen, neck, and other body parts. The physical violence towards women ranges from punches, slaps, kicks to homicide. Stress, injuries, and fear that result from abuse causes severe health issues such as gastrointestinal disorders, chronic pains, and cardiac problems such as chest pains and hypertension (Zareen, Majid, Naqvi, Saboohi & Fatima, 2009). Besides, women abuse leads to gynecological problems such as vaginal infections or bleeding, genital irritations, sexually transmitted diseases, and chronic pelvic pain. Forced sexual intercourse among pregnant women has negative impacts that involve an increased prevalence of gynecological issues. Therefore, sexual and physical abuse among battered women leads to a higher risk of health problems that can lead to a rise in mortality rate that is associated with abuse due to the increased suicide cases.

Consequently, women abuse leads to mental health effects, such as post-traumatic stress and depression. For example, mental health effects are associated with intimidation, ongoing belittlement, abusive behaviors, and economic restrictions (Zareen et al., 2009). Besides, abuse of pregnant women leads to depression, insomnia, anxiety, and social dysfunctions. Through abuse or violence, there is the development of fetal distress, preterm delivery, and pre-eclampsia. In most families that are associated with violence, there exists an increase in fetal deaths. Also, children from families that abuse women have psychological disorders, thus facing health challenges when growing up. Therefore, the violence of women among families is associated with mental health effects on children, fetuses, and pregnant women.

Interventions to End Pregnant Woman Abuse

Abuse against pregnant women by their spouses is a public concern that requires multiple interventions to either end or minimizes it in societies. Violence leads to behavioral and physical harm to pregnant women, thus leading to complications and poor results for the infants. The interventions that can work in the reduction of abuse include psychological therapy and counseling (Audi, Segall-Correa, Santiago, Andrade & Perez-Escamila, 2008). Through counseling, women gain more confidence and are encouraged to strategize on plans of avoiding abuse. Also, pregnant women who are abused by their partners can be directed to social workers who can assist them in the identification of community-based approaches. Therefore, for partners, they can be referred to the batterer treatment programs, which can take them through the conflict solving sessions.

Consequently, routine prenatal care provides opportunities for medical practitioners to identify and recognize women who are abused. The abused pregnant women are included in therapy sessions, which helps them to deal with depression and stress. The programs developed for therapy sessions involves professional therapists who assist the severe cases of violence (Audi et al., 2008). These programs can begin during the first trimester of pregnancy, thus ensuring the pregnant woman does not experience various issues that can affect her health.

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