Paper Example on Behavioral Issues in Children: Anthony Case Study

Published: 2023-02-21
Paper Example on Behavioral Issues in Children: Anthony Case Study
Type of paper:  Case study
Categories:  Childhood Behavior Mental disorder Psychological disorder
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 869 words
8 min read


Behavioral issues in children manifest themselves in a variety of ways, some of which may be confused with everyday child behavior. Henricson & Rydell (2006) point out that these behavioral issues are divided into two major facets; internalizing and externalizing expressions. Externalizing problems are impulsive, disruptive and harmful behaviors (Henricson & Rydell, 2006) which are often associated with long term negative outcomes. Internalizing problems are less predictable and are a result of moods and emotions (Henricson & Rydell, 2006). Disruptive behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, defiant disorders, temper tantrums are among the prevalent behavioral issues in school-age and preschool children.

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Anthony's Diagnosis

Antony's case study is a typical case of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD. The major symptoms of ADHD are issues related to a child's attention span; the child tends to get easily distracted, is unable to complete tasks and often ignores detail. Another symptom of this is the child's hyper activeness in which they are unable to sit quietly. Children with ADHD also portray symptoms of extreme impulsiveness, and this explains Antony's inability to complete tasks in which he gives up and ends up storming away from the assignment (Case Study 2, Para 1).

The Reasoning for This Diagnosis

ADHD is highly prevalent among children owing to its neuro-developmental nature, whose characteristics are hyperactivity and inattention (Rodriguez & Bohlin, 2005). ADHD symptoms tend to influence a child's social and academic capabilities (Okano, Ji, Riley, & Wang, 2018). This can be likened to Antony's symptoms and the fact that "he quickly loses focus on assignments and is distracted by things such as drawing, or talking to classmates" (Case Study 2, Para 1). Antony "becomes defiant" when asked to read in class. He is, however very good in math (Case Study 2, Para 1). Antony's case can be likened to Saorla Meenagh, a 10-year-old who despite her hyper activeness and inattention is also very good in math and possesses a love for Gaelic sports (Time Parents). Among the factors found to increase the risk of ADHD in children is genetics, prenatal stress, environmental and social influences (Grizenko et al., 2008). The issue of prenatal stress relates to Antony's case seeing as his mother had issues with smoking at the beginning of the pregnancy and was able to stop by the third trimester (Case Study 2, Para 3). Prenatal stress is linked to change in a woman's daily routine, which may have pushed Antony's mother to smoke. Cigarettes release harmful chemicals that affect a baby's health and may result in ADHD (Langley, Rice, & Thapar, 2005).

The Disorders Ruled Out

Child behavioral disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, learning and conduct disorders can be ruled out because Antony's behavior is not out of defiance, panic, phobia, depression, mania, receptive and expressive disorder or even destructive, aggressive or deceitful behaviours (Boylan et. al.,2007; Beidel & Turner, 2007; Singh et. al., 2007) which are all symptoms of the aforementioned disorders which affect both children and adults. Antony's issues mainly span around inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity which are all symptoms of ADHD.

Recommended Treatment

The American Academy of Paediatrics (2011) recommends that children with ADHD should be involved in an Individualized Education Program (IEP) at school. Such programs will accommodate children like Antony. Similarly, Antony's parents should be involved in a Parent training behavioral Program which will aid in Antony's behavioral improvement.


ATTENTION-DEFICIT, S. O. (2011). ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, peds-2011.

Langley, K., Rice, F., & Thapar, A. (2005). Maternal smoking during pregnancy as an environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviour. A review. Minerva pediatrica, 57(6), 359-371.

Boylan, K., Vaillancourt, T., Boyle, M., & Szatmari, P. (2007). Comorbidity of internalizing disorders in children with oppositional defiant disorder. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 16(8), 484-494.

Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & American Psychological Association. (2007). Shy children, phobic adults: Nature and treatment of social anxiety disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Grizenko, N., Shayan, Y. R., Polotskaia, A., Ter-Stepanian, M., & Joober, R. (2008). Relation of maternal stress during pregnancy to symptom severity and response to treatment in children with ADHD. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN, 33(1), 10. Retrieved from

Henricsson, L., and Rydell, A. M. (2006). Children with behaviour problems: the influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school. Infant Child Dev. 15, 347-366. doi: 10.1002/icd.448

Rodriguez, A., & Bohlin, G. (2005). Are maternal smoking and stress during pregnancy related to ADHD symptoms in children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 46(3), 246-254.

Langley, K., Rice, F., & Thapar, A. (2005). Maternal smoking during pregnancy as an environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviour. A review. Minerva pediatrica, 57(6), 359-371.

Okano, L., Ji, Y., Riley, A. W., & Wang, X. (2018). Maternal psychosocial stress and children's ADHD diagnosis: a prospective birth cohort study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 0(0), 1-9.

Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Singh Joy, S. D., Winton, A. S., Sabaawi, M., Wahler, R. G., & Singh, J. (2007). Adolescents with conduct disorder can be mindful of their aggressive behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(1), 56-63.

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