Opium Trade in China Free Essay

Published: 2022-12-02
Opium Trade in China Free Essay
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Drug abuse
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1390 words
12 min read

Opium trade, in Chinese account, is the interchange that urbanized between the 18th and 19th centuries in which the Western nations, typically Great Britain managed to export the opium that was full-fledged in India and sold it to China. However, the British used the proceeds from the vending of a drug to acquire the Chinese magnificence commodities such as porcelain, silk, and tea, which were in large stipulate in the West.

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On the other hand, opium was initially introduced to China by Turkish and Arab dealers in the belatedly 6th or early 7th era CE. Therefore, it was in use vocally to ease nervousness and ache. Though, the medicine was used in incomplete measures until the 17th century. At that position, the practice of smoking tobacco extended from North America to China, and opium smoking rapidly become fashionable all over the state. Besides, opium obsession as well enlarged, and opium importations developed quickly during the first century of the king's period. Through in the year 1729, it had become such a crisis that the Yongzheng ruler banned the trade and smoking of opium. Even though that had not futile to hinder the commerce, and in 1796 the Jiaqing royal leader managed to proscribe dope bringing in and farming. In spite of such verdicts, nevertheless, the opium buying and selling activities continued to prosper.

Furthermore, in the early of the 18th decade, the Portuguese brought into being that they could trade in opium from India and vend it in China at a significant return. Though in the year 1773, the British had revealed the deal, and by that time they became one of the chief suppliers of the Chinese bazaar. The British East India Business had managed to establish domination on opium farming in the Indian region of Bengal, where they urbanized a way of increasing opium poppies both inexpensively and in large quantities. Besides, new Western kingdoms as well coupled in operation, as well as the United States, which compacted in Turkish to include Indian opium.

On the other hand, Britain and new European nations too commenced the opium traffic for a reason that of their constant operate disparity with China. This, therefore, happened since there was incredible stipulate in Europe for Chinese tea, silks, and ceramic earthenware, however, there was likewise small command in China for Europe's pretend merchandises and additional skill bits and pieces. As a result, Europeans had to reimburse for Chinese goods with gold or silver. Even though the buy and sell of opium unraveled this unceasing deal inequality, but it has also managed to create a firm stipulate among the Chinese fanatics for the drug which was imported via the West.

In the period 1690, it is important to note that the company had trading centers all along the east and the west coast of the Indian coasts. Generally, the major center was at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. From history, it is important to note that the company started protecting its trade with its navies and armies. This was different from most of the companies that are operating currently. During this period London has turned out to be one of the significant trading centers, where goods were exported and imported and transported from one country to a different country. The company would have focused on paying for all its silver and import goods. However, traders in England wanted them to participate in the exportation of English manufactured goods.

Opium revenue was a very important source of profit for the British in India, as these revenues made up a considerable percentage of the British general revenues from India and the overall Indians exports. There exist two economic indicators that were adopted when it comes to the general trade opium; the total number of chests expected and the annual record of official monies received.

The customs and the Opium Department of British India ended up compiling the data of official biases and a suggestion that the collected data was accurate. Making a comparison of various sources of revenue in India with Opium revenue is clear evidence during this period. Comparatively, other sources of revenue in India with revenue of Opium illustrate scale opium returns. While in China, it is important to note that the business made use of the silver and gold that it was having expected to gain various products that could be exchanged beneficially in England. However, the total quantity that the opium was introduced into China expanded from a total of 300 chests annually in the period 1200 chests in 1760 and then to relevant of eleven thousand every year hence connecting both the year 1820 and that of 1830.

Meantime, it is important to note that the system of opium supply had been dominant all over China and in most cases with the engagement of bureaucratic which are dishonest. In the long run, the stages of addiction of opium ended up maturing so great that it starts to create concern on the immigrant groups and the curriculums which are certified. Eventually, the smoking of opium and infatuation maintained put as a great challenge in China.

Nevertheless, the East India Company did not transmit the opium itself other than, because of the Chinese outlaw, who ranch it out to "state sellers" For example, the confidential buyers who were approved by the corporation to obtain commodities from India to China. These country traders consequently sold the opium to smugglers alongside the Chinese shoreline. Besides, items like gold and silver that the agents time-honored from those sales were then curved over to the company in India. While in China, the business used the gold and silver it had expected to acquire the various goods that could be sold beneficially in England. However, the quantity of opium introduced into China enlarged from about 300 chests per annum in 1730 to nearly 1,200 chests in 1760 and then to relevant of 11,000 annually linking both the year 1820 and 1830. Though the influence of every chest diverse to some extent depending on the position of derivation but averaged in the region of 150 pounds. In 1840 the total had matured to some 50,000 chests that were introduced into China once a year. Though, the equilibrium of expenses for the original moment began to run adjacent to China although in right turn of Britain.

In the meantime, a system of opium supply had fashioned all over China, and seldom with the involvement of dishonest bureaucrats. As a result, the stages of opium addiction matured so high that it began to concern the immigrant groups and the certified curriculums. Even though the efforts of the family that is in power was to put into effect the opium limitations that resulted in two equipped differences between China and the West, branded as the Opium Wars, equally of which China was misplaced leading to different actions that added to the turn down of the kingdom. Hence, the initial conflict, among Britain and China, did not authorize the traffic, but it closed down the Chinese hard work to impede it. While in the second Opium combat, they wrestled between a British-French alliance and China and the Chinese administration was enforced to sanction operate, even if it offered a small tax on the import of opium. Through that time, opium importations to China had achieved 50,000 to 60,000 chests within a year, and they sustained to boost for the subsequent three decades.

However, in 1906 the significance of opium in the West's deal with China had begged to be excused, and the ruling regime was capable of commencing and of controlling the introduction and utilization of the remedy. Moreover, in the year 1907, China noticed the Ten Years' Concord with India, whereby China decided to prohibit local gardening and expenditure of opium on the indulgent that the export of Indian drug would turn down in share and end entirely in 9 years.

Eventually, the opium smoking and infatuation stayed put as a setback in China throughout the succeeding decades, however, because the destabilized essential republican regime could not wipe up the local agriculture of opium even though the opium smoking was lastly eliminated with the Chinese communists once they came to supremacy in the year 1949.


Melancon, Glenn. Britain's China Policy and the Opium Crisis: Balancing Drugs, Violence and National Honour, 1833-1840. Routledge, 2017.

Spence, Jonathan. Opium smoking in Ch'ing China. In European Intruders and Changes in Behaviour and Customs in Africa, America and Asia before 1800, 315-345. Routledge.

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