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Alcohol - Module 7
Alcohol can be defined as a colorless liquid that is volatile and inflammable which is produced by natural sugars fermentation and is also the intoxicating constituent of beer, wine, spirits, and other drinks. Too much consumption of alcohol affects the body in more negative ways than positive ways (Thompson, & Manore, 2015). Thus, the influence of alcohol in the body includes: (1) It affects the gastrointestinal tract negatively. Regardless of the dose and type of beverage that is involved, alcohol aids in the development of reflux disease of the gastroesophageal by decreasing the pressure of the lower esophageal motility and esophageal sphincter. Non-distilled and fermented alcoholic beverages increase the levels of gastrin and secretion of acid in the body, with the maleic and succinic acids contained in alcohols (Beardsley, 2014). Additionally, alcoholic drinks facilitate chronic atrophic gastritis and superficial gastritis development that affects the body negatively. Thus, the main intestinal alterations that are alcohol-related are malabsorption and diarrhea, with recovery after a normal diet has been restored.
(2) Alcohol affects the reproductive and sexual health of consumers. Men who drink excessively often experience erectile dysfunction and also prevents the production of sex hormones lowering one's libido (Thompson, & Manore, 2015). Also, women who drink too much might stop experiencing their menstrual cycles which might put them in great infertility risks. Also, the expectant mothers who drink are likely to deliver immature babies, have stillbirths or even miscarriages. Nonetheless, alcohol depends on the rate of its consumption and the short-term effects might be slurred speech, drowsiness, impaired judgment, decreased coordination and perception to mention but a few, due to the confusion of the nerves in the body forcing the body not to function appropriately (Thompson, & Manore, 2015). The long-term effects are liver disease, nerve damage, ulcers, malnutrition, gastritis et cetera that are very harmful to the body and can lead to sudden deaths. Therefore, alcohol consumption should be stopped as it only causes more damage to the body, families, and friends of the consumers, making them suffer during their deaths or treatments if the consumers were breadwinners to their families (Beardsley, 2014).
Energy Balance and Body Composition - Module 8
Eating disorders are mental illnesses which involve and eating behavior that is disordered through limiting the amount of food to be eaten with unhealthy means. The chosen eating disorder is bulimia nervosa that tends to develop mainly during early adulthood and adolescence and is always common in men than women. People who suffer from bulimia often eat large amounts of food that is unusual in a very short period. Moreover, in their diet, each episode of binge-eating proceeds up to a saturation point where the person becomes painfully full (Agh, Kovacs, Supina, Pawaskar, Herman, Voko, & Sheehan, 2016). During the binge, the person involved usually feels that he or she cannot stop eating or control their way of eating. The binges happen with any food type but they commonly occur with the foods that an individual avoids. Additionally, the people with bulimia then try purging to relieve gut discomfort and compensate for the consumed calories.
The symptoms of bulimia nervosa that are common include: Recurrent binge eating episodes that are accompanied by a feeling of lack of control (Brownell, & Walsh, 2017). Also, there are the episodes of inappropriate behavior of purging that is recurrent to prevent gaining weight. Despite having a normal weight, the bulimia victims fear to gain weight as a self-esteem is overly influenced by weight and the shape of the body. The treatment of bulimia nervosa often combines antidepressants, psychotherapy, and nutritional counseling. The psychological treatments might involve family or a group psychotherapy through prescribing cognitive and behavior therapies. Antidepressants like selective serotine reuptake inhibitors such as Zoloft, Prozac, Lexapro, and Celexa might be administered together with the psychological therapies (Brownell, & Walsh, 2017). However, the Wellbutrin antidepressant is often avoided due to its low risk of causing gaining weight for seizures in victims with abnormalities from vomiting that are an electrolyte. One might also opt for body exercises like tai chi, yoga, and dances that might help them with their body image (Agh, et al. 2016).
Vitamins - Module 9 - Discussion Board
A vitamin can be termed as any group of an organic compound that is essential for normal nutrition and growth and are needed in small quantities in a diet as they cannot be synthesized by the body. Therefore, the most effective way of getting vitamins in the body is through eating vitamin-rich foods. The number of vitamins one can absorb from the foods he or she eats can range from ten to ninety percent as many factors have an impact on the nutrients' percentage from foods (Lust, 2014). Thus, a person should consume their vitamins as supplements. Nevertheless, for one to better absorb vitamins from his or her foods, they should consider the digestive enzymes which are active compounds of amino acids that aid in metabolism and digestion. The major digestive enzymes include amylase, protease, lactase and lipase that are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. Their function is to metabolize foods to nutrients that are digestible for use and absorption by the body.
Also, one may go for probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that produce many different enzymes such as those that can aid in absorption and digestion. The probiotics are always available in supplements and in foods that are fermented like kimchee, kefir, yogurt, sauerkraut and tempeh (Aversa, Buzea, Petrescu, Apicella, Neacsa, & Petrescu, 2016). Additionally, friendly nutrients that are a combination of certain foods might boost the absorption of nutrients. For instance, foods highly rich in vitamin C enhances one's ability to absorb iron especially from foods that are plant-based. Moreover, coconut oil that is highly rich in medium chain fatty acids assists in the absorption of other nutrients and antioxidants from a person's food. The medium chain fatty acids are often tinier than the fatty acids making them easier to enter the cell membranes. The vitamin B folic acid is also typically bioavailable than other forms of vitamins found in foods and in boosting it, the foods that are rich in folate such as green vegetables can be eaten along with fortified folic acid foods (Lust, 2014).
Minerals in the Body - Module 10
Mineral RDA for Men RDA for Women Chief Functions in the Body Deficiency Symptoms Toxicity Symptoms Significant Sources
Calcium 19-50 years-1000mg, 51-70 years 1000mg and 71 years and older is 1200mg 19-50 years- 1000mg, 51 years and older is 1200mg. Nutrient interactions as it affects how the body uses and absorbs other nutrients.
Diseases and conditions as it reduces the risk of colorectal cancer and lowering the blood pressure (systolic) in people with hypertension.
It is also essential for the clotting of blood and contributes to the normal functioning of the brain (Costa, Paganotto, Radominski, Kulak, & Borba, 2015).
Fainting, difficulty in swallowing, numbness, lethargy, tingling fingers, muscles cramps, poor appetite et cetera. Confusion, coma, bone pain, diarrhea, abdominal pain, depression, headache et cetera. Soya beans, white beans, fish, collards, kales, spinach, okra oatmeal, orange juice to name but a few (Costa, et al. 2015).
Potassium 1 to 3 years-3000mg, 4 to 8 years is 3800mg, 9 and above is 4500mg. 1 to 3 years-3000mg, 4 to 8 years is 3800mg, 9 and above is 4500mg. It helps in regulating fluid balance in the body as the amount of water in the ECF and ICF is affected by electrolytes concentration like potassium and sodium.
Potassium is also important for the nervous system as it helps regulate contraction of the muscles, reflexes, heartbeat et cetera.
Lowering blood pressure due to the function of electrolytes in the body. Breathing difficulties, weakness and fatigue, stiffness and muscle aches, digestive problems, heart palpitations, tingling, and numbness et cetera. Weakness or tiredness, numbness, and tingling, chest pain, difficulty in breathing, irregular heartbeats, nausea, vomiting et cetera. White beans, fat-free yogurt, sweet potato, winter squash et cetera (Adebamowo, Spiegelman, Willett, & Rexrode, 2015).
Thus, after looking at my diet and comparing it with the drawn table, I might not be at risk of this deficiency because I regularly eat the significant sources that help prevent the diseases.
Nutrition - Module 11 - Discussion Board
Infant formulas are often designed to mimic the nutrition of breast milk as they provide the same nutrients in the same quantity as breast milk. The difference between infant formula and breast milk is the lack of live antibodies found in infant formulas. Additionally, when infants are born, their digestive system is not fully developed and might have difficulties in digesting the proteins that are in whole milk. Infant formula and breast milk have high whey protein concentration and low casein protein concentration, that is large and hard to digest (Kon, & Cowie, 2016). Nonetheless, the high quantity of protein found in whole milk can damage the developing kidneys of an infant and by promoting digestibility, the protein of infant formula is similar to the protein of breast milk. Also, any other booster or supplementary does not contain all the minerals and vitamins that are needed in the first year of life (colostrum) as they are all low in vitamin C and E.
The decreased levels of vitamin C can reduce the immunity of a child and increase the chance of getting infections and only breast milk and cow's milk can help. Breast milk and cow's milk have functions that are similar as they are natural and have no chemicals or preservatives that might affect an infant. The consumption of whole milk might also lead to high intakes of potassium, chloride, and sodium and overloading these electrolytes can strain the kidneys of an infant (Andres, Moore, Linam, Casey, Cleves, & Badger, 2015). Therefore, it can be considered that breast milk is the best for infants as it always free from infections, have all the minerals that an infant requires, is always at the right temperature and always readily suitable for all infants.
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