Nursing theory is often very different from its practical application.it is one thing to know what to do, and it is another to decide what to do in the particular situation as it presents itself. As such, nursing is a profession that requires that one is able to synthesize the various applications that are there within a real-life situation. This paper is the study of three case examples in the application of nursing theories in mock situations.
Case Study 1
Levines theory in the case of Jane is specifically applied because of her unique health situation. In this theory, nursing care will strive to ensure that the status quo of the patient remains the same if the situation cannot change for the better. This is especially true where the condition of the patient arises from an irreversible disease, which is the case for Jane. The goals of the theory are majorly to do with maintaining the overall wholeness of the patient as well as their capacity to endure and adapt to the situations that they are facing (Levine, 1995).
In the case of Jane, it is thus necessary to ensure that these goals are met, especially because of her response to the separation of her parents. The major goal for this treatment will be to maintain her wholeness. This could be done by further engaging her on the importance of the decisions that others make, especially through counseling. Remember that this theory bases itself on the assumption that the human being is a whole being constantly struggling to maintain this wholeness. Through the means of counseling, Jane could be made aware of other ways of preserving this integrity, which may not include negative tendencies such as withdrawal. An analysis of her operational environment may be instrumental towards showing her the importance of such approaches. The internal environment can be adjusted so that it is one of constant change, which is the homeorrhesis approach. In this kind of approach, the adaptation to change may help Jane further understand the place of change and learn to appreciate it despite the negative emotions that they may cause. Focus can however, be taught to be on the positive things in life such as the calming effect that she obtained from playing the piano.
Case Study 2
It is important to note that there are some requisites that are in place in order for a person to care for themselves, despite the assertion that is globally accepted that every human being is capable of being responsible for themselves. Primary care prevention as well as ill health are some of the factors that are necessary when determining the ability of a person to take care of themselves. The case of Mrs. Anderson is one such case where the determination has to be made on whether she is fit to take care of herself after the fall she had subsequent to her husbands death.
Some of the factors that need to be considered in the case of Mrs. Andersons care are environmental, health concerns and the nursing domain of the issue. With regards to environmental concerns, we see the case of enthronement. This is where there is a requirement of constant supervision as a person in need of help. It is clear that Mrs. Anderson is not yet able to handle herself as much as she would want to believe that she can. She is significantly slower than she was before and there is a likelihood of memory lapses in the course of her general duties (despite the lack of evidence to this effect). Health concerns are in the form of the incomplete healing of her hip while the nursing domain mainly deals with the preferred method of care (Harper, 1984).
Some of the self-care deficits that Mrs. Anderson has are in the areas of developmental self-care. She finds herself unable to cope with the jobs that she previously used to do with ease, such as the preparation of the children. Furthermore, the adjustments to the physical effects of the injury to her daily activities can be seen and she further reflects on it. Despite her best efforts, she cant seem to get around doing things fast enough. There is fear from her family that she may lack the requisite self-care structures, such as remembering to feed herself and ensure basic safety and care for herself. However, no evidence to the same has been proven.
This can be overcome however, if she can be proven to be in the proper state of health to move back out on her own. The situation of pressure at her childrens house could be removed for an analysis of a different setting to measure the outcomes of her ability to take care of herself, should she live on her own. This could include an exercise for the requisite self-care activities and a constant check to make sure that she is adhering to this (Frey & Denyes, 1989). With regards to the adjustment to the hip surgery, there is need to engage her in physical therapy that will help her adjust faster to the effects of the injury. Since the theory is aimed at ensuring that people have the necessary tools and bodily function to ensure their protection and survival, an analysis of this can be used to determine Mrs. Andersons capability of the same.
Case Study 3
There are some important assumptions in Roys theory that are necessary in ensuring that the understanding of Sgt. Johns concerning his condition is clear. In this theory, the individual is seen as a bio-social-psycho being. When faced with changing situations, the person employs methods that are both social, psychological and biological to overcome or adapt to them. Some of these challenges may come in the form of illnesses which are seen as an inevitable part of life under this theory. The nursing approach in this case has four methods of accomplishment, one of which is the self-concept method. In this approach, the inter-personal approach is used to gauge the feelings of the patient concerning their view of the challenges that they are facing in a bid to alleviate the effects of those challenges (Paplau, 1992). Roys theory gives the nurse important indicators that will enable the effective treatment of the aftereffects of Sgt. Johns condition. The importance of listening to Johns is placed on the place of the interpersonal relationship between the nurse and the patient in this model of nursing. As a result, the effectiveness of the treatment is in the interactions with the patient themselves rather than friends and relatives of the patient. After all, the patient can best describe with accuracy the challenges that they are facing and their take on what the best step to take is.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Frey, M., & Denyes, M. (1989). Health and illness self-care in adolescents with IDDM: a test of Orem's theory. Advances in Nursing Science.
Harper, D. (1984). Application of Orem's theoretical constructs to self-care medication behaviours in the elderly. Advances in Nursing Science.
Levine, M. (1995). The rhetoric of nursing theory. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship.
Paplau, H. (1992). Interpersonal relations: a theoretical framework for application in nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly.
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