|Type of paper:||Research paper|
Migration involves the movement of people across areas or nations. It entails the altering of a person's place of habitation and lastingly residing in a country or region. Is defined as an occurrence whereby people move from one geographical region to the other. It happens when people leave their home of habitation and forever resides in other new areas. It may be permanent or temporary and return in the future date. The process of migration is informed by the verdict of a person or a group of people with the same intention or migrating together. As movement may result in massive changes in the composition, size, and structure of the population, the variations in the birth and death rates do not affect migration whatsoever (De Haas 228).
It is therefore of great importance to study migration because the population of a given region is determined by death rate, movement, and birth rate. Undeniably, migration helps to assess population dispersal as well as labor supply in the country. To formulate economic and other policies, the government through its agencies needs to study the migration trends to help them come up with appropriate measurements that can stir up economic development (De Haas 241). Because migration affects the economic development of a country, economists are concerned in the study of migration it impacts on the supply of labor, development of the industrial sector and even commerce thereby leading to a destabilization of employment structure (Dingle 629).
In studying migration in Zimbabwe, which is one of the mostly affected countries in Africa, it would be important to first look at some of the basic types of migration. They include; immigration and emigration whereby people move from one country to another and settles there forever. Example when people move from Zimbabwe to South Africa. About Zimbabwe, it is known as emigration while to South Africa; it is immigration. Another type of migration is referred to us in-migration and out-migration. In-migration is where migration occurs within a specific region, while out-migration involves migration out of an area. Both are known as internal migration because they occur within the country. For example, if one moves from Harare to Bulawayo, in-migration for Bulawayo and it is out-migration for Harare. There is also gross and net migration. These two, explains the total number of people getting into a given region and the total number exiting from the same region in a given period. The difference between the number of people getting in an area to reside and those who have left is referred to us net migration. Lastly, there is internal and external migration where internal is the movement of people in different nations and areas within a country from one place to another place. While external, also referred to us international migration is the movement of people from one nation to another for permanent settlement.
There are several effects of migration in Zimbabwe as it affects where people live and where they finally settle. When people migrate from rural to urban areas, they have both positive and adverse effects on the community and the economy in extension. Migration affects the economic level of the rural regions in that when people migrate to towns, pressure on the limited resources will decrease thereby increasing incomes of the people through reduced pressure on land.
Migration also had tremendous effects on the Zimbabwean population in that it has reduced the population growth rate in rural areas. Undeniably, it has weakened the social set up of the society as people move out and others get in. In fact, severe housing shortage, increased crime and congestion and the massive increase in the cost of essential items have been associated with movement of people. Lastly, it has led to underdevelopment both in towns and rural areas.
De Haas, Hein. "Migration and development: A theoretical perspective." International migration review 44.1 (2010): 227-264.
Dingle, Hugh. "Migration." Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition). 2009. 628-633.
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