The marketplace of ideas is a logic espousing the freedom of expression entrenched on a parallel economic concept of a free market. The rationale upholds that truth is founded from a competition of ideas, concepts and ideologies in a free and transparent public dialogue. Depending on the inferiority or superiority of a concept or ideology and its extensive acceptance across a population, the concept can be culled or adopted (Menand, 2010). The marketplace of ideas rationale can be placed in several perspectives, such as the social responsibility and the libertine spheres. However, no matter the perspective the fundamental element of truth prevails.
From a social responsibility perspective, truth is perceived to be the absolute standard in guiding decisions and actions of mankind. Subsequently, the social responsibility theory advocates for a free press, where information freely flows without any censorship, and with a high level of accuracy and information. From the libertarian perspective, the aspect of individual liberty of expression is emphasized. In this sense, everyone in a population has the right of expression, or the right to know the whole truth as per the demands and interest of that individual. From both perspectives, it is clear that the access to truth is the prime focus, which is attained through speaking out or accessing some information. Q 2. Social construction theory:
Social construction is a theory of knowledge in communication theory and in sociology that explores the progressive understandings of the world. It presents understanding, the importance and implications of perceptions and ideas as fostered in coordination with other human beings. These ideas are based on subjects like gender, race, and sexual orientation (Haslanger, 2012).
Depending on the individual rationalization on a particular subject; for example, race, the individual is able to create a model of the world and how it runs. The constructionist may feel that one of the races, gender or sexual orientation stands superior to its contemporaries. Consequently, this serves to shape and influence the thinking, perceptions and actions towards other individuals. For example, the black race has always been perceived as inferior, while the whites have been attributed with nobility and dignity. As a result, a sense of prejudice is introduced across the society, with the whites receiving more social esteem.
The cultivation theory defines the influence of media on the attitudes and perceptions of an individual towards a certain subject, object or human. The media tends to reinforce ideas that are already prevalent within the society. With a view on real life violence related cases, the media has significantly contributed to the escalation of the same. The media continuously broadcasts and disseminates explicit media content that is packed with graphic violence in form of films or violent video games. With time, these images trigger a motor response that is translated into the real world. Individuals attempt to exercise what they learnt in the films, which breeds and aggravates to violence in the society (Forte, 2014).
Under private media ownership, it becomes difficult for either the government to regulate the disseminated information. The press-body has absolute freedom in detailing all the truth a round an issue, or its inclination to conceal some of the facts. Such a predisposition is subject to abuse, where the owners might customize their news articles to suit the interests of their audience, or release some classified information that may ruin the repute of a company, government or an individual. Appertaining to agenda-setting, privately owned media may have a profound influence on the public, by influencing its thinking on selective issues prevailing across the society. Such a position may be attained when the media focus on several issues and magnifies their importance, with a prime objective of directing the public towards the ideals of the private media house (Joachim, 2007).
On the other hand, private owned media may create awareness around an issue by engaging the public into a constructive debate. As more time is located to an issue, the public becomes receptive and alert to the issue or to an event. For instance, aggressive reporting on sports may evoke interest in a specific sport, even when none of the members within the audience had interest in the game prior to the exposure.
However, where the media is owned by the government, the government exercises absolute control on its broadcasting operations. No information goes into the public domains without the consent of the regulating arm. The government may decide to censor some sensitive information depending on its implications. For example, if the government considers that relaying some news or images related to terrorism and extremism may negatively impact the national security, the government may remain apprehensive to such broadcasts (Joachim, 2007). Comparatively, the government owned media has the mandate to disseminate information that is perceived to elicit a collective public good, and avoid any ambivalent broadcastings that may induce negative or skewed effects.
Through conducting extensive research in both political and social spheres, the students in Frankfurt further developed Marxism studies and adopted the Critical theory. The Critical theory is perceived as a comprehensive summary of Marxism ideologies, which critiques and provides a deep analysis to the past philosophies (Boros, 2015). In 1922, the Frankfurt School was set up under the headship of Carl Grunberg and Felix Weil who significantly funded the institution. Later in the year, Felix Weil organized a symposium that presented the drawbacks of implementing socialism, which was in favor of the capitalistic market as espoused by Karl Marx. The symposium was highly attended, subsequently accelerating the elevation of the institution to a full university.
Upon acquiring the status of a university, there was more research in progress. One of the great scholarly work that emphasized on Karl Marx philosophy against Communism ideologies was History and Class Consciousness by Georg Lukas. Compared to Marxism stand against Communism, the authors highlight the importance of breaking away from Communist Party, a political wing in Germany that was backing the community ownership of the production capacities. Across time, other scientists embarked on cross-disciplinary research, attempting to analyze most of Marxism philosophies and theories (Boros, 2015). The school continued in research and fostering other advanced studies in politics, scientific, and history aspects until its closure by the Nazis, and later shifted to the United States.
What social psychological needs are fulfilled by watching professional sporting events on television?
The Hedonism theory would best define how an individual finds the need to multiply his or her pleasures while minimizing the pains. The theory is described by intense consumerism towards positive psychology. The individual attaches pleasure and happiness to various activities and behavior. The person may find much pleasure in watching a program on the television, which may not elicit the same effect on another person. Therefore, the aspect of pleasure in this case is purely a raw subjective feeling. In the cognitive facets of the individual, the mind perceives a state of objective happiness after the desire is fulfilled. In this regard, watching professional soccer is the desired objective. Upon fulfilling it, these innate desires are satisfied, thus granting a sense of happiness (Wong, 2012).
What is the level of awareness of HD-Radio technology and programming amongst radio listeners in the United States?
The cognitive evaluation theory would best differentiate between the level of awareness relating to the High-definition technology and programming. With the intrinsic desire of wanting to know how the device functions, some individuals will be prompted to learn how the system works, either from their colleagues or by themselves. This drive for knowledge however varies from one individual to another. Therefore, some individuals may be outwardly motivated to learn on the new technology with external interactions only, for example after visiting a friend who owns the device they may get the interest (Akbarov, 2011).
Children are likely to imitate behaviors they see acted out in animated childrens programming.
According to the cognitive theory of learning, the brain is able to capture images and interpret them as the child learns. Instinctively the mind is made to replay the scenes depicted in the real world after prudent interpretation. When the child enjoys the multimedia content, the brain registers these images and they are later replayed in the mind. As a result, the child will be noted to practice the same (Pritchard, 2014).
Successful twitter marketing campaigns must target opinion leaders, rather than the general public.
The elite theory would best exemplify the campaign, where the marketing information would first land in the control of the target opinion leaders. According to the theory, the small minority of planners and policy makers hold more power and influence over their subjects. If the opinion leaders approve of the marketing strategy or the product attributes, this will directly influence the general public into accepting the commodity (Gerstenberger, 2007).
Akbarov, A. (2011). Languages for specific purposes in theory and practice. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Boros, D. (2015). Critical theory and the Frankfurt School. New York: Oxford University Press.
Forte, J. A. (2014). An introduction to using theory in social work practice. New York: Routledge.
Gerstenberger, H. (2007). Impersonal power: History and theory of the Bourgeois State. Leiden: Brill.
Haslanger, S. A. (2012). Resisting reality: Social construction and social critique. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joachim, J. M. (2007). Agenda setting, the UN, and NGOs: Gender violence and reproductive rights. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
Menand, L. (2010). The marketplace of ideas. New York: W.W. Norton.
Pritchard, A. (2014). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. New York: Routledge.
Wong, P. T. P. (2012). The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications. New York: Routledge.
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