Lab Report Example on Observing the Glucose Concentration

Published: 2022-04-05
Lab Report Example on Observing the Glucose Concentration
Type of paper:  Course work
Categories:  Chemistry
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 943 words
8 min read

1. When the milk sample was placed in the glucometer, the screen showed the concentration of glucose in the sample.

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2. The second step involves observing the concentration of glucose in milk sample in the absence of enzyme lactase. This procedure acts as a control experiment, and it is essential in this experiment.

The glucose level obtained in this control experiment will be used as the glucose level at 0 minutes in the next tests.

According to glucometer readings, at 100 - 150C, the concentration of glucose was 3.2mmol.L-1.

The temperature of cold bath water is approximated 100 - 150C since it is difficult to maintain the low degrees.

3. A lacteeze solution contains 5% lactose enzyme. When 1 ml of the solution was added to the 20 ml milk solution, and the two solutions stirred, the reaction occurred.

Glucose concentration was recorded in the four first minutes of the reaction. The results obtained indicated the extent of reaction at 100C.

The following concentrations of glucose were recorded;


(minutes) 0 1 2 3 4


Concentration (mmol.L-1) 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6

Hydrolysis of Lactose at 100C.

From the readings recorded, the concentrations of glucose with increasing minutes showed an unexpected pattern. The drop in glucose concentration in the first minute and the second was as a result of errors. Errors, in this case, could have been as a result of the difficulty in maintaining the low temperatures or the uneven distribution of heat within the water bath.

In the third and fourth minutes, the effect of temperature on the reaction was now observable. The rise in glucose concentrations was as a result of increased energy within the particles thus increased reaction.

4. For quality results, the procedure was repeated with varying temperatures ranging from 200C to around 400C and effects recorded as observed.

At 240C, the results were convincing, and they could lead to drawing the relationship.


(minutes) 0 1 2 3 4



(mmol.L-1) 3.2 3.8 4.4 5.2 5.3

Hydrolysis of Lactose at 240C

The increase in temperatures and that of glucose concentration are directly proportional. As the temperature increases, there is a subsequent increase in energy in particles. Therefore, an increased bombardment of individual particles gives rise to increased reaction.

Increase in the rate of reaction leads to an increased breakdown of lactose and as a result high concentrations of glucose.

5. Temperatures were increased from 240C to 300C and the data recorded as follows;


(minutes) 0 1 2 3 4



(mmol.L-1) 3.2 4.6 5.2 5.6 6.3

Hydrolysis of Lactose at 300C

The pattern suggested by the glucose concentration in the table above shows that the particles are in vibrant, successful collisions, and thus enhanced reaction rate.

Glucose concentration increases steadily with time.

6. The procedure carried out at 400C temperatures was the last one in this experiment.

Hydrolysis of Lactose at 400C


(minutes) 0 1 2 3 4



(mmol.L-1) 3.2 4.6 5.3 6.4 6.0

It was observed that the glucose concentration increased to a value 6.4mmol.L-1 then dropped to 6.0mmol.L-1 for this range of temperature.

The highest value of glucose concentration for the range of temperature 200C to 400C was 6.4mmol.L-1.

7. Calculating initial rates of reactions.

The initial rate of reaction is given by the speed of glucose production/ time taken forproduction.

Therefore in the first minute of reaction at 100C, the rate of reaction was,

3.1mmol.L-1/ 1 min = 3.1(mmol.L-1/min)

At 240C, the rate of reaction was,

3.8mmol.L-1/ 1 min = 3.8(mmol.L-1/min)

At 300C, the initial rate of reaction was,

4.6mmol.L-1/ 1 min = 4.6(mmol.L-1/min)

At 400C, the initial rate of reaction was,

4.6mmol.L-1/ 1 min = 4.6(mmol.L-1/min)

A Graph of Temperatures Against Initial Rate of Reaction.











Initial rate of reaction (mmol.L-1/min).

Correction of errors.

In the next experiments, to prevent the errors arising from uneven distribution of heat can be overcome by using sticky tubes in ice which give constant temperatures.

The issue of glucometer inaccuracy, some readings on the same solution will give some values, and the correct amount can be deduced henceforth. A different instrument could be used as well to compare the accuracy of the glucometer.

On timing, readings should be taken with accuracy. Since this is a human activity and different people have different responses, the error might be insignificant to the overall results, but it is advisable to prevent the causes of the inaccuracies.


Temperature influences the rate of reaction. Therefore, the speed of the reaction is dependent on temperature. The rate of reaction is directly proportional to temperature under which the reaction takes place. The reason behind an increase in the rate of reaction is the increase in energy of particles in lactose. When these particles are in the bombardment, the lactose molecule in the presence of lactase enzyme can split into the two simple sugars (glucose and galactose).

For a lactose molecule to split, the milk solution is placed in a glucose-galactose bond in the presence of the enzyme. Since a water molecule contains two hydrogens and one oxygen, oxygen and hydrogen are added to the galactose while the other hydrogen is attached to the glucose. From the data recorded from the experiment, more so from the graph, it can be deduced that at a specific temperature the rate of reaction could not increase further. This temperature is referred to as the optimal temperature. Optimal temperature is the temperature at which the enzyme will work best, and this means an enhancing the rate of reaction since it is a catalyst.

From the experiment, above specific temperatures, the enzyme could not catalyze the reaction. Lactase is a protein and proteins functions with shapes. When lactase is exposed to higher temperatures, it is denatured and thus cannot function without nature. Similarly, when a protein is exposed to low temperatures, they become dormant.

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