IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC AND OTHER FACTORS

Published: 2017-12-02 14:42:09
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Introduction
Thisprojectdescribesthemanagementofdiabetes, accordingtocertaindemographicfactorsviathemonitoringofHbA1cresultsoverathree-yearperiod (2012-2014). Theimpactofthesefactorsincludingage, gender, diagnosis, andreferrallocationonglycemiawasestablished. Patienthistoryrecordswereanalyzedtodeterminefactorsassociatedwiththelowerglycemialevelsthroughoutthetwo-yearperiod.
Aims
• TocharacterizeglycemiainindividualpatientsattendingKuwaitiInpatientandOutpatientfacilitiesoveratwo-yearperiod
• Toestablishassociationsofglycemiawithdemographicfactors (age, sex), clinicaldiagnosis (diabetesandothermedicalconditions), andreferrallocation
Methods
AretrospectiveobservationalstudyofglycemiawasperformedinapopulationofpatientsattendingKuwaitihospitalandoutpatientfacilitiesbetween2012and2014. Informationcollectedincludedage, sex, clinicaldiagnosis, andreferrallocation. Glycemiawasassessedbymeasurementofnon-fastingglycatedhemoglobin (HbA1c). Associationsofglycemiawithdemographicandotherfactorswereestablished-testsandotherstatisticalprocesseswereperformed.
Results
HbA1cmeasurementsweremadein854patientsbetweenJanuary2012andSeptember2014. Patientswereomitteddependingontheinformationavailableforthevariouscategories. Thecalculatedmeanandstandarddeviation (SD) HbA1cofallpatientswas7.81%±1.98.
Intotal, 305malepatientswereanalyzedrangingfrom13yearsoldto89yearsold. TheirmeanHbA1cwas8.06% withanSDof ±0.11.
Overall, 297femalepatientswereanalyzedwithagesrangingfrom10yearsoldto90yearsold. TheirmeanHbA1cwas7.89% withanSDof ±0.33.
Althoughfemalesexperiencedmorefluctuationsintheirglycemiccontrolfrom2012-2014, theyhadlowerglycemiclevelsoverallcomparedtothemalepatients.
ThelowerHbA1clevelswithadecreasingglycemicleveltrendbelongedtothetwenty-onetothirty-year-oldpatientstwelvepatientswereanalyzedandfoundtohaveanaverageHbA1cof7.96% withanSDof ±0.86. Theyachievedoneofthelowestglycemicvaluescomparedtotheotherageranges. Inthedatacollectedforthreeyears, theirHbA1clevelcontinuouslydecreasedtoastablerange.
Becausetheinpatientandpolyclinicpatientsexperiencedmanyfluctuationswiththeirresultsincreasinganddecreasinginglycemicvalues, theoutpatientpatientsmaintainedlowerglycemiclevels. TheoutpatientlocationstartedwithpoorHbA1cvaluesof9.2% and10.4%respectively, butthendecreasedthelevelsandmaintainedaratherstablelevelofglycemiawithanaverageHbA1cvalueof7.5% in2014. Theoverallaverageforthisgroupwas8.04% withastandarddeviationof ±0.99.
Patientscategorizedasdiabeticsunderthediagnosisportionoftheirrequestformsmanagedtheirglycemiclevelsoverathree-yearperiod (2012-2014). Thepatientsinthisgroupdecreasedtheirglycemiclevelsgraduallyovertheperiodofthisstudy. TheaverageHbA1cvaluefrom2012-2013was8.37% withanSDof ±0.24forthediabeticpatients, whilefrom2013-2014theaverageHbA1cfordiabeticpatientswas8.11% withanSDof ±0.11withaP-valueof0.96whichconcludesaninsignificantdifference.
Conclusion
Femalepatients (=297) hadlowerglycemiathanmalepatients (=305). Thismightbebecauseofmorehormonalchangesinfemalesthanmalesandthelifestylechangesmorefemalestendtomakesuchasdieting. LowerGlycemiawasobservedin21-30-year-oldpatientsthananyotheragegroup. Glycemiawashigherininpatientsthaninoutpatientsbecauseinpatientsaremorereliantonmedicationsthatmayaltertheirglucoselevelsorbeusedtomaintainahealthyglucoselevel. HbA1cgraduallydecreasedinglycemiclevelsfordiabeticpatientsthanitdidforanyotherdiagnosis. Therefore, asstudyportrayedtheHbA1clevelsinvariousbroadcategories, futurestudiesoughttofocusononeofthegroupsandanalyzeitwithdetailinordertohelpmaintainhealthyglycemiclevels.

CHAPTERONE
Abstract
Introduction
Thisprojectdescribesthemanagementofdiabetes, accordingtocertaindemographicfactorsviathemonitoringofHbA1cresultsoverathree-yearperiod (2012-2014). Theimpactofthesefactorsincludingage, gender, diagnosis, andreferrallocationonglycemiawasestablished. Patienthistoryrecordswereanalyzedtodeterminefactorsassociatedwiththelowerglycemialevelsthroughoutthetwo-yearperiod.
Aims
• TocharacterizeglycemiainindividualpatientsattendingKuwaitiInpatientandOutpatientfacilitiesoveratwo-yearperiod
• Toestablishassociationsofglycemiawithdemographicfactors (age, sex), clinicaldiagnosis (diabetesandothermedicalconditions), andreferrallocation
Methods
AretrospectiveobservationalstudyofglycemiawasperformedinapopulationofpatientsattendingKuwaitihospitalandoutpatientfacilitiesbetween2012and2014. Informationcollectedincludedage, sex, clinicaldiagnosis, andreferrallocation. Glycemiawasassessedbymeasurementofnon-fastingglycatedhemoglobin (HbA1c). Associationsofglycemiawithdemographicandotherfactorswereestablished-testsandotherstatisticalprocesseswereperformed.
Results
HbA1cmeasurementsweremadein854patientsbetweenJanuary2012andSeptember2014. Patientswereomitteddependingontheinformationavailableforthevariouscategories. Thecalculatedmeanandstandarddeviation (SD) HbA1cofallpatientswas7.81%±1.98.
Intotal, 305malepatientswereanalyzedrangingfrom13yearsoldto89yearsold. TheirmeanHbA1cwas8.06% withanSDof ±0.11.
Overall, 297femalepatientswereanalyzedwithagesrangingfrom10yearsoldto90yearsold. TheirmeanHbA1cwas7.89% withanSDof ±0.33.
Althoughfemalesexperiencedmorefluctuationsintheirglycemiccontrolfrom2012-2014, theyhadlowerglycemiclevelsoverallcomparedtothemalepatients.
ThelowerHbA1clevelswithadecreasingglycemicleveltrendbelongedtothetwenty-onetothirty-year-oldpatientstwelvepatientswereanalyzedandfoundtohaveanaverageHbA1cof7.96% withanSDof ±0.86. Theyachievedoneofthelowestglycemicvaluescomparedtotheotherageranges. Inthedatacollectedforthreeyears, theirHbA1clevelcontinuouslydecreasedtoastablerange.
Becausetheinpatientandpolyclinicpatientsexperiencedmanyfluctuationswiththeirresultsincreasinganddecreasinginglycemicvalues, theoutpatientpatientsmaintainedlowerglycemiclevels. TheoutpatientlocationstartedwithpoorHbA1cvaluesof9.2% and10.4%respectively, butthendecreasedthelevelsandmaintainedaratherstablelevelofglycemiawithanaverageHbA1cvalueof7.5% in2014. Theoverallaverageforthisgroupwas8.04% withastandarddeviationof ±0.99.
Patientscategorizedasdiabeticsunderthediagnosisportionoftheirrequestformsmanagedtheirglycemiclevelsoverathree-yearperiod (2012-2014). Thepatientsinthisgroupdecreasedtheirglycemiclevelsgraduallyovertheperiodofthisstudy. TheaverageHbA1cvaluefrom2012-2013was8.37% withanSDof ±0.24forthediabeticpatients, whilefrom2013-2014theaverageHbA1cfordiabeticpatientswas8.11% withanSDof ±0.11withaP-valueof0.96whichconcludesaninsignificantdifference.
Conclusion
Femalepatients (=297) hadlowerglycemiathanmalepatients (=305). Thismightbebecauseofmorehormonalchangesinfemalesthanmalesandthelifestylechangesmorefemalestendtomakesuchasdieting. LowerGlycemiawasobservedin21-30-year-oldpatientsthananyotheragegroup. Glycemiawashigherininpatientsthaninoutpatientsbecauseinpatientsaremorereliantonmedicationsthatmayaltertheirglucoselevelsorbeusedtomaintainahealthyglucoselevel. HbA1cgraduallydecreasedinglycemiclevelsfordiabeticpatientsthanitdidforanyotherdiagnosis. Therefore, asstudyportrayedtheHbA1clevelsinvariousbroadcategories, futurestudiesoughttofocusononeofthegroupsandanalyzeitwithdetailinordertohelpmaintainhealthyglycemiclevels.

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