In Kukk Kristiina, van Ham Maarten and Tammaru Tiit's research titled "Ethnicity of leisure: A domains approach to ethnic integration during free time activities," published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on 2018 addressed the norms of separation as well as social structure during leisure time. According to Kukk et al., the family at home and friends at work environments are major influences towards the construction of leisure (289). In other terms, free time spent with family members and workmates/peers is most valued among various ethnic communities and races since it is within them that people experience and learn leisure skills, interests, behavior, as well as attitude (Kukk et al. 289).
According to Kuck et al. the construct of ethnicity in leisure was through the analysis of the co-evaluation of racial integration standards in various scopes of daily activities, for example, for adults, home, work and entertainment were the essential domains of approach (292). The element of segregation applied to the research denoted the similarities and differences experienced by different ethnic groups when engaging leisure. Moreover, segmentation enhanced much on the various outcomes of relaxation in case wealth as well as racial preferences influences it (Kokk et al. 291-293. The result highlights that the capability of affording the desired recreation and socializing with others with the same values, preferences, and socio-economic position has an impact on one's emotional attachment to success (Kuk et al. 293). It is so since leisure became an essential section of their social personality, lifestyle, and satisfaction (Kukk et al. 292). In other terms, people of color (minority ethnic group) associated with weak livelihood and poverty have different recreation activity pattern to that of the white (majority ethnic group) population, who are directly linked to wealth and status identification.
According to the study's regression assessment, the race/ethnicity construct in leisure changed between 2000 and 2010. The analysis denoted that in 2000, the two ethnic communities had limited participation in recreation cultural events, and these norms declined in 2010 (Kukk et al. 299). The main reason for the high impact of similar leisure patterns between these groups can be highlighted in terms of socio-economic inferiority. The people of color were well-known for their financial instability, isolated themselves within their communities, and co-ethnic relations (Kukk et al. 297-298). The primary reason for such isolation was due to socio-political biasness, where one ethnic population was favored over the other. Therefore, making the least preferred being more aggressive with their family's leisure activities and plans due to racism and discrimination (Kukk et al. 299). Even with the decline of different leisure patterns among these two ethnic groups, but racial geography affects the uniformity of a unified leisure pattern. Ethnic geography established the standards of residential social structure among the main barriers that promote normal free-time activities (Kukk et al. 300).
To conclude, the study established that there are different leisure patterns between people of color and the white population. By comparing 2000 and 2010 recreation structure among these two ethnic groups, the study highlighted that currently there are improvements in leisure time patterns that omits the norms of ethnic populations. In the past, 2000, precisely socio-political and economic biasness were the key issues that led to the gap between these two groups since they made the rules of racism, class, and ethnic discrimination.
Kukk, Kristiina, Maarten van Ham, and Tiit Tammaru. "EthniCity of leisure: A domains approach to ethnic integration during free time activities." Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie (2018): 289-302. DOI:10.1111/tesg.12307.
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