|Type of paper:||Term paper|
Neisseria gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection that affects human beings. Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection and therefore it can mutate with the use of a specific antibiotics. It causes female endocervicitis and male urethritis. According to the report of world health organization of 2008, there is an estimate of 106 million new infection of Gonorrhea around the world (Yu et al, .2014). In the last decades, the medical professionals reported gonorrhea as STIs developing resistance against infections. Some of the antibiotics that initially treated gonorrhea include penicillin, fluroquinolones, and tetracycline. However, with mutations the antibiotics cannot the antibiotic does not treat gonorrhea. There have been reports various parts of the world concerning the resistance of gonorrhea to treatments (Ventola, 2015).
Gonorrhea is a challenge to public health it is capable of causing extreme pain and serious health complications. Much is known of Neisseria Gonorrhea because the causal bacteria were identified in 1870s. There have been other biblical stories attempting to explain the origin of the bacteria hence the disease has been around for centuries. In early 1940s, the most effective treatment for gonorrhea was penicillin (Yu et al, .2014). However, with continuous treatment of gonorrhea using penicillin, the disease developed resistance because of mutations. Scientists believe that the resistance to penicillin took specific stages. The first mechanism of antibiotics resistance is chromosomally mediated resistance that resulted from penicillin- binding protein. The other mechanism for that led to the resistance to antibodies is penicillin-mediated resistance.
After gonorrhea developed resistance to penicillin, scientist shifted to new antibiotics called Fluoroquinolones that became and effective treatment for gonorrhea. However, with a continuous use of the antibiotics, the disease mutated to efflux Pump thus forming gyrA gene. In the last decades, the new infections of gonorrhea are treatable by cephalosporin. The resistance of the disease to antibiotic has raised concerns regarding the future of patients with the disease. In 2010, gonorrhea patients were treated using ceftriaxone injections (Yu et al, .2014).
There are several questions regarding the factors that accelerate the bacterial resistance to the antibiotics. The first is inability ability to access penicillin-binding protein. The modification of enzymes and the inactivation of the enzymes is another cause bacterial resistance to antibiotics. A study shows that each antibiotic has it weakness that provides an opportunity for the bacteria to mutate. For example, cephalosporin has been the most effective antibiotic for the treatment of gonorrhea until the last two decades when the bacteria causing gonorrhea mutated. Research shows gonorrhea developed resistance to this type of a disease because of the following factors. One of the factors was the alteration of amino acids thus rendering the antibiotics unable to bind the target. Second, a mutation of penB genes and over expression of efflux pumps coding genes.
The discovery of Tetracycline antibiotics was a hope that the spread of gonorrhea would be halted. Tetracycline works through inhibition. In this case, when the gonorrhea patients use tetracycline, the antibiotics inhibit the manufacture of protein. Research confirms that tetracycline slow down the growth of the bacteria. However, the treatments of disease using tetracycline are many doses, which in turn inhibits it effectiveness. Besides, the use of many doses to the antibiotics to treat gonorrhea contributes to the high rates of resistance (Yu et al, .2014).
Treatment of gonorrhea
The rate at which bacteria causing gonorrhea is developing resistance to antibiotics is high. In the 21st century, there is a high mobility of people because of jobs and learning. As a result, the rate at which STIs is spreading is high and therefore the need for a treatments that will bring a lasting solution. The majority of health care professionals encourage people to abstain from pre-marital sex to avoid contracting gonorrhea. Despite the high rates in which gonorrhea is developing resistance to antibiotics, there is still one recommended drug for the treatment of the disease. Cefixime is one of the antibiotics with the ability to lower the effects of gonorrhea in the body. Some researchers suggest that the mode of administration of cepodomoxine and Cefixime have helped in the treatment of gonorrhea. Ideally, both cepodoxime and Cefixime are administered orally (Yu et al, .2014). For the last decades, the two antibiotics have worked to reduce the effect of the bacteria in the affected population.
Researchers have had difficult time determining the susceptibility of Cefixime to Gonorrhea to guide clinical applications (Yu et al, .2014). The research in the last decades has found out that Cefixime works well in male patients as opposed to female patients. It is apparent that men in sex relationship are at risk of contracting gonorrhea as opposed to men engaged in heterosexual relationships. The NG infection during same sex relationship has been found to be hard to treat. The antimicrobial susceptibilities in patients vary. For this reasons, there is a need for close monitoring of patients who are under antimicrobial treatments. Studies on the variation of effectiveness Cefixime across the continents has confirmed that the variation is due to climatic conditions. For example, in Asia, the Cefixime susceptibility rate is relatively lower as compared to other continents across the globe.
The increase in the antibiotic resistance has called for closer surveillance on the disease. There have been attempt to hire highly trained personel and equipping them with necessary tools to respond to the new threat from gonorrhea. In the United States, there has been an increase in epidemiological investigations on the cases of gonorrhea in the country. The epidemiological investigation is aimed at helping the local people understand the dynamics of the spread of gonorrhea and their preventions. The serious spread of gonorrhea in the region has trigger sensation of the populations to overlook the cultural beliefs and superstition attached to the disease. The persons with a history of the disease have had to undergo serious medical checkup to ensure the spread of the disease is halted. The research from various health care aims at identifies accurate diagnostic methods for the deadly disease. It is apparent that late diagnosis of the disease reduces the chances of cure. Most of the health care professionals in various parts of the globe are looking for better ways to determine the susceptibility and resistance of the disease to antibiotics. The aims of the susceptibility research is determine a molecular text helpful in the stopping the impact of the disease. In most of the health care, the remittance of lab results is quick to ensure identifying, treating and stopping the high spread of the disease (Yu et al, .2014).
The spread of Gonorrhea as raised the attentions of most people regarding the signs and symptoms of the disease. The medical practitioners advocate for more knowledge on the signs and symptoms of the disease because it is the foundations of it treatment. Some of the common signs of gonorrhea in both male and female is extremely painful urination. Gonorrhea and other examples of STIs affect the genitals of human beings. As a result, it is possible for an individual to experience pain in areas such lower abdomen, testicles, pelvis, and the Vagina. The emphasis on the frequent checking of gonorrhea is because in some cases, the disease does not have signs and symptoms. Women with gonorrhea sometimes experience the abnormal discharge while the male counterparts experiences painful urinations. The pains are common during sex intercourse and during urination. Women with signs such as irregular menstruation, frequent desire to urinate, sore throat, and pus in the genitals are most likely to be suffering from the disease (Ventola, 2015).
Gonorrhea is one of the STIs that threaten the public health. All the bacterial infection is hard to treat because of their ability to develop resistance to medicine. For centuries, gonorrhea is popular for its resistance to antibiotics. For example, since 1940s, gonorrhea has developed resistance to penicillin, fluroquinolones, and tetracycline. The ability of the disease to mutate from one gene makes it hard to treat. The research in various institution of higher learning shows that different countries use different antibiotics to treat gonorrhea. Gonorrhea sometimes does not show any signs and symptoms and therefore it paramount to for people to have regular medical checkup. The constant change of antibiotics reduces the mutational abilities of the disease Ventola, 2015).
Ventola, C. L. (2015). The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 40(4), 277.
Yu, R. X., Yin, Y., Wang, G. Q., Chen, S. C., Zheng, B. J., Dai, X. Q., ... & Chen, X. (2014). Worldwide susceptibility rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to cefixime and cefpodoxime: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 9(1), e87849.
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