Gettysberg and Second Inaugural Addresses

Published: 2019-05-15 06:21:14
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Both the Gettysberg and Second Inaugural Addresses are similar in that Abraham Lincoln uses logos, pathos, and ethos while presenting the speech. Ideally, both were speeches given at a time when civil war was a threat towards uniting northern and southern states. However, the Gettysburg speech addressed a Soldiers National Cemetery while the second inauguration was delivered in the conclusion of the civil war (Baym et al. 2012).

Both are similar in that logos are used. For instance, the author points the fact that in order for the country to emerge triumphant from the menace put forth by the civil war, being united was something that cannot be avoided. Also, unison was needed for both the northern and southern states if success was to be achieved. Pathos have been used when the author uses emotional appeals. For instance, as the authors assert, it was waged for all the good reasons, not the bad. It was not wanted but it was necessary.

Also, ethos have been used when the author questions why people who worship God should be involved in issues such as slavery, when the bible restricts other peoples mistreatment. Repetition is also another common style used. For example, in Gettysburg address, we cannot is repeated severally, and also of the people, by the people, and for the people. In the Second Inaugural Address, with malicewith charity.with firmness show aspects of repetition. However, they are different in certain areas, for example, in Second Inaugural Address, more Biblical allusions have been used, which makes it more concrete compared to Gettysburg Address. Also, the Gettysburg Address concentrates more on equality and independency while the Second Inaugural Address revolved around fighting for a unified state and the disapproving of cessation from Southern states. For this reason, the Second Inaugural Address is more effective, as it has more weight, as well as better leveraging of pathos, logos, and ethos.

Throughout Douglasss What to the Slave is the Fourth of July, there has been a strong use of rhetorical devices, strong language, as well as multiple biblical allusions. For instance, strong language is evident when he says your shout of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns.mere bombast, fraud, deception, impietya thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages (Douglass, 1852). As such, the strong language reveals how the menace of slavery faces America, yet, people are reluctant in weeding it because it is a contradiction to freedom for people living in the same country. Ideally, by not doing away with slavery, as Douglass points out, America remains a nation of savages. Biblical allusions have been used in various instance, for example, capitalizes on the use of the Bible to bring in credibility and logic in his speech when he says confessing and worshipping the Christians God.yet black population is still searching for their liberty (Huston, 2012).

Also, Douglass uses you to point out the gulf existing between the slaves and the citizens, and his likening of the nation to a child, thus, he suggests that the US needs to grow and improve (Baym et al. 2012). It is rhetorical when he mentions how American Revolutionists fight for freedom against British rule. Ideally, this correlates to the current menace of slavery, meaning that the citizens are subjecting the slaves to unequal and unfair treatment, just as the British subjected the citizens before independence. His purpose is to trigger their minds so that they realize that the practice of slavery is not only harmful to the blacks, but to the whole country. He succeeds in accomplishing this purpose by likening slavery to British colonial rule, as well as how bad the practice is according to the bible.

Throughout Whitmans Song of Myself poem, probes about how large a new democratic person can become before dissipating to contradiction and fragmentation are evident in its entirety. Whenever he reaches a certain limit, he dilates. For instance, the first three lines, he leaves out two characteristics of people that can create war, jealousy, and animosity, which are possessions and beliefs. These two are what separates people yet Whitman says, what I assume you shall assume (Baym et al. 2012). As such, it suffers indiscriminate inclusion. Whitman has altered punctuations, deleted and added sections, and divided the poem in many ways, but the I and You remain the central subjects of the poem. Whitman also presents the idea of collectivism and individuality.

However, as he proclaims, his work is for self, both the democratic and individual selves. He uses the grass metaphor to enumerate on the democratic self, which he says can be found in the young, and thus, in all people (Baym et al. 2012).. The lack of concern, however, is not a problem as he succeeds in presenting is poems purpose that democracy is important as a way of interpersonal interactions, and therefore, equality is paramount. As such, democracy should not be hindered by political systems. It is beyond how people fight, work, art, speak, think. As such, Whitmans poem succeeds in putting forth the importance of equality in a nation.


Baym, N., Levine, R., Franklin, W., Gura, P. (2012). The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Vol. 1 (Shorter Eighth Edition). New York : W.W. Norton & Company.

Huston, J. L. (2012). The Lost Cause of the North: A Reflection on Lincoln's Gettysburg Address and the Second Inaugural. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, 14-37.

Douglass, F. (1852). What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?. The Heath Anthology of American Literature, 1, 1818-1836.



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