Free Essay Example on Training and Nutrition

Published: 2022-09-20
Free Essay Example on Training and Nutrition
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Sport Nutrition
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1762 words
15 min read

Question 1 - Pathways

The human body has three pathways that are used to transmit energy for use in anabolic and aerobic activities. The first pathway is ATP/CP and is used to produce energy. This pathway is primarily used in providing energy that requires 0-3 seconds of maximum effort. Exercises that utilize the ATP/CP pathway requires ballistic or explosive movements and includes tennis serve or shot put. While the amount of energy that one receives from a molecule of ATP has high octane, this energy barely mast for more than 1.26 seconds. The CP stores can sustain more than 10 seconds in sustaining some light tenacity exercises like swimming a 100 yard. After the body runs out of ATP and CP, the body must utilize carbohydrates to maintain an endurance activity. The carbohydrates are used to convert ADP to ATP. This necessitates the body to use the second pathway known as the glycolytic pathway. In the process of converting ADP to ATP, the human body will produce Lactic Acid which initiates a burning effect that occurs when one lifts weight for a long duration (Brown, Miller& Eason, 2006). This acid is produced when the body is engaged in an aerobic activity through the glycolytic pathway thereby accumulating a pool of lactic acid that causes a burning sensation. This is what makes it difficult for those that are training for the first time to engage in a long anaerobic exercise. They are not able to sustain the pain that comes with it. The third pathway is the oxidative pathway which is entirely aerobic. This means that the pathway produces ATP via the Krebs cycle together with the electron transport chain. This pathway is effective for exercises that takes more than two minutes like mountain climbing or participating in the Boston marathon.

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As a trainer, it is fundamental to understand all the three pathways. For an athlete, the focal point is the oxidative pathway. When preparing someone to use the oxidative pathway for an exercise, more emphasis should be put on carbs and fat intake rather than proteins. Instead of lifting heavy weights to engage in ATP/CP and glycolytic pathways, the best way is to run a long distance to engage more of the oxidative pathway and improve the threshold for oxygen depletion. There is a probability of fatigue if oxygen is depleted and blood pH decreases hence the need to condition the body in aerobic activities to be able to sustain long distances (Seem, 2013). As a trainer, it is essential to understand the three pathways and an athlete in context to maximize the threshold for performance. If an athlete is new to body lifting, the accumulation of lactic acid in the body may prevent him from going for longer than someone that is used to weight lifting.

Learning Experiences, Section 2: (Units 4 - 7)

Question 2 - body movements

There are six fundamental body movements namely;

  1. flexion
  2. extension
  3. abduction
  4. adduction
  5. rotation
  6. circumduction

All the six movements are used in different kinds of exercises. Flexion movement is used in the Dumbbell bicep curl, abduction in Dumbbell lateral raise, adduction movement in Pectoral Flys. An example of circumduction movement is applied in Ankle circles body exercise. Extension movement comes in when the leg is put behind an athlete on a standing hip machine (Broomfield, 2011). A strong tennis stroke is an excellent example of a rotation movement. This involves the backhand.

Some exercises or activities involve more than one movement an example of such is the barbell standing squat. The recovery stage of this exercise utilizes the flexion movement while in the effort stage, there is a hip extension and adduction movement, knew joint extension and flexion at the plantar. A better understanding of these movements is fundamental for a trainer. Trainers need to understand how the body muscles work to advise their clients better. Muscles can be built to withstand different conditions through abduction and flexion. Offering professional advice to the athlete will prevent injuries and unnecessary fatigue either during training or in a competition. When abduction is conducted, the client needs to maintain stability to avoid hurts. When doing lateral raises also, the athlete should not go past the shoulder with a dumbbell to shape his muscles in an efficient way. Body shape and physique are fundamental in achieving good results in competition. Better knowledge on kinesiology and body mechanics helps enhance athlete performance.

Learning Experiences, Section 3: (Units 8 - 11)

Question 3 - aerobic and anaerobic training

Aerobic and anaerobic activities have significant benefits to the body. Anaerobic exercise helps in enhancing the body physique and improving on strength while aerobic exercise improves on cardiovascular health. The statement that aerobic activities only helps in burning fat is not true. Even though there are some studies assert that aerobic exercise burns a high quantity of fats that anaerobic exercise, there is no absolute fact that doing cardio is the only method of burning fats. Any activity that involves metabolism burns calories and any form of exercise involves metabolism (Nitti & Nitti, 2001). The problem is that people fail to understand that different types of anaerobic exercises can cut fat. Pushups and pullups are some activities that do not require weights, but help reduce fat in the body. Barbell complexes is another perfect way of burning fat since one used type one muscle fibers to catalyze fat loss. Instead of running for an hour, an athlete can do five sets of barbell lifts. This allows the body to utilize the type one muscle fibers effectively.

Healthy eating is another method of burning body fats. There is a need to focus on consuming an appropriate amount of macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals. As a trainer, besides anaerobic and aerobic training, there is a need to formulate a feeding plan that will work towards burning fats in the body (Nitti & Nitti, 2001). While aerobic activities help in burning fats, anaerobic exercises will build on the mass muscle only if an appropriate amount of vitamins, carbs, and proteins are consumed. This means that every client needs a customized training plan based on his needs.

Learning Experiences, Section 4: (Units 12 - 16)

Question 4 - Crossfit, BFS, HIT

The three training systems are highly commercialized and used by many people across the globe. They are effective in achieving stronger and better fitness results.

Crossfit: this is a unique approach to achieving fitness since it focuses on many aspects of fitness and assimilates them into a single fitness cycle. Crossfit involves swimming, jogging, and weight lifting to achieve a comprehensive fitness goal. Instead of engaging in three different sets of 30 of bench press, this training system can combine a set of 50 pull-ups, a set of 50 push-ups and another set of 50 crunches as a full exercise. The training system does not only helps in muscle building, but it also helps in enhancing functional body strength (Bergeron & Davidsdottir, 2017). In relation to the seven laws of training, Crossfit follows the principles of overcompensation and overload principle. It does not follow the SAID principle, individual differences principle, USE/disuse principle, and GAS principle. My opinion is that even though this training system is effective in developing endurance and functional power, it is more of competitive purposes than muscle building.

Bigger, Faster, Stronger (BFS): This is the opposite version of Crossfit. It focuses more on the neurological power/strength of an athlete. This training system is arranged in a four-week cycle.

Week Training sequence

1 3x3

2 5x5

3 5,4,3,2,1

4 10-8-6

This is effective for athletes who desire quick and progressive strength gains and part of the exercise is bench press. The training system has six exercises that help improve on a client's strength: Bench press, box squat, power clean, bar deadlift and towel bench press. This system follows all the seven laws of training except the GAS principle. In comparison to Crossfit, it does not emphasize cardiac endurance, but just as it states, it makes one bigger, faster and stronger. The only challenge is that it requires those with experience in the gym since it has some technicalities that might be fatal for newbies.

High-intensity training (HIT): This training system is used by a bodybuilder to trigger the type one muscle fibers to enhance bodybuilding. It is excellent in supplementing with other workout regimens hence its effectiveness. If done appropriately, this training system can follow the principle of overload, Use/Disuse principle, and the principle of overcompensation (Bergeron & Davidsdottir, 2017). However, it does not follow the law of Individual Differences, SAID principle and GAS principle.

Bigger, Faster, Stronger (BFS) is the most appropriate training system for me because of the love for weightlifting and strength building.

Learning Experiences, Section 5: (Units 17 - 20)

Question 5- micronutrients

Protein: Protein helps in building muscles and facilitates blood circulation in the body. Protein is part of the micronutrient and is created when amino acids consolidate together. It is fundamental in promoting anabolism, in the maintenance of enzymatic tissues, and burning fats. Those with high protein quantity in the body has a faster metabolism. Protein is rich in meat and beans.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrate is a combination of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Carbon is broken down into glucose, fructose, and galactose to provide energy in the body. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy and are not stored but instead converted immediately to an energy source (Phillips & D'Orso, 2012). It is recommended to consume minimally processed carbohydrate to acquire high energy levels. Athletes should not take sugar, pastries and white bread as the source of carbohydrates because they increase blood sugar level. Besides minimally processed carbs, athletes should consume high fiber content such as brown sugar.

Fats: in the human body, fats are stored as adipose tissue under the skin. Fats are an alternative source of energy and help in balancing hormones, production of linoleic acid and also helps in the transportation of fat-soluble molecules. Athletes need to consume a healthy diet with both polysaturated and monosaturated fat quantity. Fats play acts as an alternative source of energy and also regulates hormones. Hormones are fundamental in controlling metabolism in the human body. The best source of unsaturated fat is flax seeds.

Understanding micronutrients and their important play a pivotal part in achieving body fitness goals. Besides, they say "garbage in, garbage out" and what is consumed into the body influences what get out (Phillips & D'Orso, 2012). Bodybuilders need specific amount and quality of nutrients to achieve their desired body shape. Trainers and trainees need to have sufficient knowledge in macronutrients to help achieve energy levels during training and ultimately achieve their training goals.

Learning Experiences, Section 6: (Units 21 - 31)

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