What literary approach does the author take?

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The Old Man and the Sea: Story of a Common Man is a fictitious story. The author does not actually write of practical events that occurred during the time in mention but rather talks of mental imaginations thereby building mental stories. For instance, the idea that the Marlin pulls Santiagos boat for several days and nights is indeed pure fiction.

What is the main idea/focus of the author of the criticism?

The major focus of the author of the criticism is the honor that comes with the struggle, perseverance, defeat and eventual death. The author is in a manner of the idea that no struggle is worth giving up and regardless of the turmoil, people should learn to always hold on. Sometimes, good things come after significant perseverance, according to the author. Man is not made for defeat . . . man can be destroyed but not defeated.

With what literary device(s) does the author use to support his/her position?

The story is told of an aging old man who despite his bad luck on the sea, kept on trying until the day he finally managed to fish out a huge Marlin. The fight with sharks is also another element in the story meant to further build on the theme of struggle and perseverance.

What are some of the details/facts that support the main idea of the authors criticism?

The major literary devices used to support the authors argument are the various elements of fiction used in the story. For example, in the first paragraph, the author writes that Santiagos sail of cliff resembled the flag of permanent defeat. Similarly, Santiago was pulled around by the giant Marlin for several days and nights. The various fights with the sharks that kept on following him are also fictional, but meant to show the Santiagos determination to take his harvest home. These are elements of fictions that have been used to emphasize on the need for perseverance, especially when seeking fortunes.

Annotated bibliography: The Old Man and the Sea

Brenner, Gerry. The Old Man and the Sea: Story of a Common Man. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1991. Print.

This is a text written by Brenner and Gerry analyzing the major themes in the text The Old Man and the Sea: Story of a Common Man. It can also serve as a study guide for initial readers.

Ehms, Sanya. The Old Man and the Sea - Language, Nature and Dreams: Hemingway. Munchen: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Print

This text is about the various stylistic devices such as use of language as well as the themes in the book. It is more of a thematic analysis of the original text. It also discusses the relationship between such themes and nature.

Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Scribner, 1964. Print.

This is the original text as written by Ernest Hemingway.

Jobes, Katharine T. Twentieth Century Interpretations of the Old Man and Sea. Englewood Cliffs: N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1968. Print.

This book presents vivid explanations explaining how different audiences interpreted the text in the twentieth century. It talks about the divergence views as held by different people about the text.

Lichtenstein, Jesse, and Ernest Hemingway. The Old Man and the Sea: Ernest Hemingway. New York: Spark Pub, 2002. Print.

This book is also another detailed analysis of the major themes in the original text. It mostly dwells on the symbol of dreams as used in the text.

Valenti, Patricia D. Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002. Print.

This book is a readers guide that presents chapter by chapter interpretation and analysis of the entire novel. The book also discusses the themes, character characterization and use of language in the novel.

sheldon

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