Extent to which study design reduce threats to internal, construct, and external validity
Patient Re-hospitalization or readmission for that matter is a common activity and it has lately been costly. In many situations, readmission of patients is necessary and highly appropriate. An article by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement indicates that one in every five elderly patient is readmitted back in hospital after 30 days (Hansen, Young, Hinami, Leung, & Williams, 2011). The paper focuses on emancipating a call for action against a failure in the system, reason being is most of these readmissions in hospitals are unnecessary (Vasquez, 2009).
The paper looks into the reduction of internal validity, it looks into the causes of the high number of patient readmission in hospitals. In takes the approach of cause and effect through the analysis of the reasons why there are readmissions in many hospitals (Hansen, Young, Hinami, Leung, & Williams, 2011). It purposes on providing and analyzing evidence for effective interventions that can be put to use to prevent re-hospitalizations of patients.
The construct validity of the paper is seen through the provision of actual solutions to reduction of re-hospitalizations in hospitals. It can be said that the paper has been able to maintain focus of the paper through provision of interventions to reduce prehospitalization. Through provision of solution such as the early post discharge follow up and front loaded home care visits (Vasquez, 2009). All these solutions will greatly help the patient to be able to have a quick recovery even while at home. The construct validity of the paper remains concrete.
External construct of the paper takes a populations and ecological perspective. It is highly important to regard the number of hospitals that were used in the research. The researchers considered a great ecological setting while looking into 158 survey results in order to get a broad spectrum of research data. The research paper was well researched and it is a perfectly curated for future use.
Actions to reduce threats to internal, construct, and external validity
The researchers included several key mechanism to help curb out situations where people would doubt the external, internal and construct validity. The paper is well structured and it has been able to clearly define the purpose and methods the researchers used in conducting the research. Through the use of online searches using key words like unnecessary hospitalization, readmission, these key words help generate over 1000 documents that was used in conduction of analysis(Hansen, Young, Hinami, Leung, & Williams, 2011). The great aspect to this information provided is that it is global and cuts across through different continents.
The external construct was sorted through proposition of improved discharge process, this basically meant providing enhanced care and support during the transition period. Through provision of Re-Engineering Discharge (RED), the researchers offer a nurse advocate who works with patients educating them on their rights, arranged other reps like post-acute medical follow ups. Part of the solution will be a constant call within a 2-4 days period after discharge from the hospital.
It is important to understand that the paper has managed to show a clear outline of the internal and the construct validity of the paper during coverage of the research project. The information disbursement clearly describes the internal and the construct (Vasquez, 2009). Actions that could be recommended to be included in the study to reduce threats to internal, construct, and external validity
The paper clearly articulates the reason why patient readmissions occur in many hospitals and the reasons why it is so frequent among the elderly. It is important to understand that the research paper has clearly stated the mechanism that can be put in place to prevent and totally reduced re-hospitalization of patients. The researchers have been able to reiterate that patient readmission is mostly caused by a failure in the system (Vasquez, 2009). It clearly shows the aspect of internal validity, the cause and effect principle that comes with two forces.
The paper could have focused more on getting actual information from hospitals and not collection full information from actual survey from hospitals. The validity of information available on online searches puts to question the validly of the information. It is important that the researchers should have conducted a physical surveys at hospitals in different location of United States. The inability of the researchers to conduct a physical survey means that the external and the construct validity of the information provided is in doubt.
It is highly important to understand the validity of the information provided from the internal, external and construct validities. The research is critically required to hold up to these specified validity markers, it is important that research should have clearly stated the core reasons why readmissions occur and classify these reasons based on the level of operation of a hospital i.e. community hospitals, referral hospital or national hospitals(Vasquez, 2009). It is important to categorize this information in order to get a clear perspective of the various reasons in different levels of hospitals in order to group reasons for comparisons and similarities.
Hansen, L., Young, R., Hinami, K., Leung, A., & Williams, M. (2011). Interventions to Reduce 30-Day Rehospitalization: A Systematic Review. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 155(8), 520. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-155-8-201110180-00008
Vasquez, M. (2009). Preventing Rehospitalization through Effective Home Health Nursing Care. Professional Case Management, 14(1), 32-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pcama.0000343145.81635.e3
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