Essay Sample on Impact of Marine Activity on Marine Protected Area at Beausejour, St. George's Grenada

Published: 2022-11-16
Essay Sample on Impact of Marine Activity on Marine Protected Area at Beausejour, St. George's Grenada
Type of paper:  Literature review
Categories:  Environment Ecology Nature Water
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1140 words
10 min read

There is a variety of human activities that take place within the marine environment that may affect the ecosystem. Some of these activities include overfishing, mining, trawling, tourism and agricultural activities. Natural activities such as hurricanes and climate change also affect the marine ecosystem (Roby, 2010). To protect the marine environment, governments come up with policies such as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) restricting human activity so as to curb the environmental destruction that may result from these activities. There are several MPAs in Grenada including the Grand Anse, the Woburn Bay, Sandy Island Oyster Bed and the Moliniere-Beausejour which was designated in 2001 (Baldeo et al., 2012). These geographical spaces are legally defined, managed and recognized as they are important in conserving the ecosystem (Frew, 2011). This paper presents a literature review of the impact of marine activity at the Moliniere/Beausejour Marine Protected Area (MBMPA), St. George's Grenada.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

One of the activities that have negatively affected the Moliniere/Beausejour Marine Protected Area (MBMPA) is Overfishing. This activity has a major impact on coral reefs. According to Baldeo et al. (2012), overfishing in Beausejour has led to reduced herbivory and pollution which, in turn, causes the overgrowth of microalgae on corals. The microalgae thus destroy the ecosystem since its overgrowth covers the coral reefs thus negatively affecting them. Frew (2017) adds that the sedimentation that arises from the pollution and nutrient traps is a major catalyst for coral reef destruction. The coral reefs at Grenada are at risk. Due to overfishing and high nutrient levels, the general percentage of microalgae cover increases while the live coral cover decreases (Jeffrey et al., 2012; Agardy, 1997; Bustamante et al., 2018). As a result, there is a high number of branching corals as opposed to massive ones thus a weak coral reef system. The overfishing activity has been going on despite efforts by authorities to put in measures that are expected to curb the menace. Although the Moliniere-Beausejour MPA incorporates attempts such as information campaigns, fishing restrictions, patrols and the introduction of antillarum to conserve the coastal line, these efforts have not borne fruit (Nimrod et al., 2017). The impact has not been felt. According to Bustamante (2018), the Moliniere-Beausejour MPA has not reported any significant changes in the microalgae levels. This means that the overfishing activity has continued to have a negative effect on marine life in Grenada.

Another activity that has a negative impact on marine wildlife in Molinere-Beausejour MPA is that of recreation. This activity generally affects the whole of the Caribbean region. Being situated in the Caribbean, Grenada's Molinere-Beausejour is seriously affected by tourism activities such as snorkeling, cruising, diving, and intertidal trampling (Oracion et al., 2005, Roby, 2010). Marine reserves have a unique aesthetic appeal that contributes to the creation of massive tourism activities in the MPA areas (Anderson et al., 2014; Agardy, 1997). People are also increasingly becoming aware of nature thus the interest to visit the MPAs as tourists (Bustamante et al., 2018). The tourism infrastructure at St. George's, in particular, is exceptional with popular beaches such as the Grand Anse Beach located there (Government of Grenada, 2014). Although the coastal area is characterized by rocky shores and precipices, it is very popular with tourists. This means that despite the effort to remove human beings from the MPAs, they still come back as visitors (Nimrod et al., 2017). Some of the ways in which the activities of these tourists affect marine life include the dilapidation of coral reefs, marine pollution, and general environmental pressures that destroy marine life (Frew, 2011). This negative impact destroys the marine ecosystem despite the revenue it brings.

Agricultural activities also affect marine life in a negative way. Farmers in Grenada's Molinere-Beausejour produce various food crops. The communities that live near the MPAs engage in small scale farming activities (Bustamante et al., 2018). However, improper farming activities such as the poor application of farm inputs and fertilizers lead to eutrophication and sedimentation (Milazzo et al., 2002; Roby, 2010). These activities amount to pollution of the marine environment thus grossly affecting marine life, particularly the sea-grass beds and coral reefs. Although agriculture is one of the major economic activities in the Caribbean region, it is not closely monitored and this explains why it has continued despite the negative impact it has on marine wildlife.

Various scholars have registered their concerns over the growing rates of marine life destruction. After having undertaken research, they seem to agree that there is a need for specific monitoring and management plans to be undertaken in each MPA in the Caribbean region. These plans can be implemented through legislation, policy, training, and sensitization (Oracion et al., 2005; Nimrod et al., 2017; Bustamante et al., 2018). Although activities such as agriculture and tourism are major foreign income earners, the scholars agree that they should not be exploited at the expense of marine life. If these activities must be carried out, they must be sustainable. Fishing activities also need regulation to ensure they are sustainable so as to conserve the marine ecosystem.


Anderson, R., Morrall, C., Jossart, J., Nimrod, S., Bolda, E., Musser, K., ... & Balza, R. (2014). Marine Protected Area monitoring in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean: benthic cover and fish populations. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 62(3).

Agardy, T. S. (1997). Marine protected areas and ocean conservation. Academic Press.

Bustamante, G., Vanzella, A., Glazer, R., & Collado-Vides, L. (2018). The evolution of the Caribbean Marine Protected Area Management Network and Forum (CaMPAM): 20 years of the Regional Multidimensional Program for Strengthening MPA Practitioners. Gulf and Caribbean Research, 29(1), GCFI1-GCF9.

Baldeo, R., Jeffrey, C., & Khan, Z. (2012). Strengthening stakeholder organization of Moliniere/Beausejour Marine Protected Area (MBMPA).

Frew, S. (2011). A management capacity assessment of selected coral reef marine protected areas in the Caribbean.

The government of Grenada (2014). Government committed to Grenada's Marine Protected Areas.

Jeffrey, C., Baldeo, R., Samuel, B., & Khan, Z. (2012). Laying the groundwork for the Moliniere/Beausejour Marine Protected Area Business Plan.

Milazzo, M., Chemello, R., Badalamenti, F., Camarda, R., & Riggio, S. (2002). The impact of human recreational activities in marine protected areas: what lessons should be learned in the Mediterranean sea?. Marine Ecology, 23, 280-290.

Nimrod, S. H., Easter-Pilcher, A. L., Aiken, K. A., Buddo, D. S. A., & Franco, C. (2017). Status of Diadema antillarum populations in Grand Anse Bay, Grenada, 30 years after mass mortality. Bulletin of Marine Science, 93(3), 917-927.

Oracion, E. G., Miller, M. L., & Christie, P. (2005). Marine protected areas for whom? Fisheries, tourism, and solidarity in a Philippine community. Ocean & coastal management, 48(3-6), 393-410.

Roby, D. (2010). Moliniere-Beausejour Marine Protected Area management plan draft version. Report to the Ministry of Agriculture. Forestry & Fisheries, Grenada. Available at

Cite this page

Essay Sample on Impact of Marine Activity on Marine Protected Area at Beausejour, St. George's Grenada. (2022, Nov 16). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism