In this quantitative article, the sample being studied consisted of 970 female nurses who were picked from 47 nursing units such as the operating rooms, intensive care units (ICUs), outpatient departments, and oncologyCITATION Mih14 \l 1033 (Park, Cho, & Hong, 2014).
In this qualitative article, the sample featured thirteen Nigerian immigrants CITATION Tur14 \l 1033 (Turk, Fapohunda, & Zoucha, 2014).
Describe the samples characteristics and demographics
The sample of 970 registered nurses featured a mean age of 28.6 years. 77.5% of the total were single and 76.6% had either a baccalaureate or higher academic degree. The sample featured an average of 5.4 years of experience from working as registered nurses. Of this percentage, 33.7% featured less than 3 years of experience, 31.6% featured an experience of 3 to 5 years, and the remaining percentage had 6 years or more of experience. CITATION Mih14 \l 1033 (Park, Cho, & Hong, 2014)Here, the sample consisted of individuals aged between 27 and 57 years. 92% were female, leaving a small percentage of male participants. 62% were employed outside of the home, but all had some type of college education. The participants had lived in the US between 9 months to 30 years. As such, 77% considered English to be their primary language. Others either stated Yoruba, Igbo, or Kanuri as their primary language CITATION Tur14 \l 1033 (Turk, Fapohunda, & Zoucha, 2014). Participants were either from the ethnic groups of Yoruba, Bini, Igbo, or Kanuri.
Discuss the data collection process
Closed ended questions were used to collect responses from participants. This is because the chloices were already indicated for them and they just had to tick (MacQueen et al., 2014). Each response represented a certain percentage, which would enable the interpretation of the data.
After photographs were taken, they would be emailed to the principal investigator who would compile them all in a PowerPoint Presentation that would be displayed at the meeting CITATION Tur14 \l 1033 (Turk, Fapohunda, & Zoucha, 2014). During each focus group meeting, the photovoice methodology was employed. Open ended questions and probes were also employed to boost the discussion, as the respondents were given an option to express their ideas using their own words (MacQueen et al., 2014).
Identify the sampling design
Convenience sampling design Snowball sampling design
Described the instrument, tool, or survey
The instrument used here featured the second version of the medium-sized Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). It paid attention to four types of violence including physical violence, threats of violence, sexual harassment, and also bullying CITATION Mih14 \l 1033 (Park, Cho, & Hong, 2014). Additional questions on verbal abuse have also been included to help in the identification of any verbal abuse which may be directly related to the four types of violence.
The tool used here featured a digital camera which participants were expected to use to capture what they thought was unhealthy eating and physical activity CITATION Tur14 \l 1033 (Turk, Fapohunda, & Zoucha, 2014).
Summarize the discussion about the validity and reliability of the instrument
The COPSOQ II has been used previously in the healthcare industry, as well as in many countries, and the validity has been established. Reliability has also been proven as changes were made to various sections of the instrument to ensure that even after translation, it still carried the same meaning (Newman & Helft, 2015). Although it has never been used in this context, the results and reaction of participants show that the Photovoice approach is valid and reliable. This is because it is not a new concept, and the participants felt like it was an easy way of collecting data (Newman & Helft, 2015). The fact that it presented data first hand to the others in the focus group also enhances reliability.
Identify the consent form and IRB
The IRB approved this study, however consent forms consent forms of participants were not obtained. This is because it was not mandatory to participate in the survey. Individual envelopes were provided in which willing partipants were expected to place and seal their questionnaires immediately after completion. The data used in the study was general and could not identify an individual nurse. IRB approval was obtained from the university where the principal investigator is employed. A written consent form was obtained from the interested individuals. They were educated on the importance of respecting the privacy of the public, and also on the importance of asking for permission before taking any photographs.
MacQueen, K. M., Chen, M., Ramirez, C., Nnko, S. A., & Earp, K. M. (2014). Comparison of Closed-Ended, Open-Ended, and Perceived Informed Consent Comprehension Measures for a Mock HIV Prevention Trial among Women in Tanzania. Plos ONE, 9(8), 1-8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105720
Newman, A. R., & Helft, P. R. (2015). Reliability and Validity of a Tool to Assess Oncology Nurses' Experiences With Prognosis-Related Communication. Oncology Nursing Forum, 42(1), 64-73. doi:10.1188/15.ONF.64-73
Park, M., Cho, S.-H., & Hong, H.-J. (2014). Prevalence and Perpetrators of Workplace Violence by Nursing Unit and the Relationship Between Violence and the Perceived Work Environment. Nursing Scholarship, 87-95.
Turk, M., Fapohunda, A., & Zoucha, R. (2014). Using Photovoice to Explore Nigerian Immigrants Eating and Physical Activity in the United States. Nursing Scholarship, 16-24.
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