Paper Example: Fall Prevention Programs

Published: 2023-02-11
Paper Example: Fall Prevention Programs
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Healthcare policy Public health Lifespan development
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 886 words
8 min read

As we age, the considerations for exercise change based on various factors influencing our physical capabilities. Durstine et al (2008), while discussing exercise is medicine, tells us good health occurs with eating healthy and keeping up physical activity; keeping in mind, not all activity has to be rigorous exercise. Many people live out their years understanding the need for dietary change but they don't share the ambition to exercise as suggested. Ambrose et al (2013) explore aging is associated with alterations in a walking pattern along with balance, an increased amount of inactivity, the onset of more severe chronic type conditions, and increased prescription medications used daily which indicates certain risk factors for falling. Frieden et al (2015) make special notation regarding the seniors not liking the use of the word exercise, rather refer to it as movement activities. The word use here suggests a less threatening aspect of creating mobility through fun activities associated with increasing one's awareness to prevent falls. Durstine et al (2008) further discuss the key factor to human biochemistry and physiology as physical activity. The reasoning for this is the human body is designed to move and sedentary lifestyles, which may affect, senior citizens for one reason or another cause secondary complications which make them more susceptible to falling causing injury. Once injured their quality of life worsens having to depend more on others to help them with tasks they once performed independently. Jin (2018) tells us falls with adults over age 65 are the leading cause of injury. The proper fall prevention program can likely help a senior citizen retain their quality of life. Durstine et al (2008), Ambrose et al (2013), and Jin (2018) all state age as a factor contributing to potential falls focusing on the losses of capability, physically, over time as we age with being inactive.

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Fall prevention programs have emerged around the nation with the United States government spearheading some initiatives. Rubenstein et al (2006) explain why identifying intervention programs are necessary for senior citizens as a major research area. Bergen et al (2014) share statistical information that 2.8 million senior citizens required treatment for emergencies for falling. They add hospitalizations of 800,000 and around 27,000 died from injuries resulting from falling. The injuries sustained during a fall are, but not limited to, hip fractures, muscle tears, sprains and strains of joints, bruising trauma, paralysis, bone breaks, and death. Each of these affects one's quality of life which may be hard to adjust to living. Burns et al (2016) detail the cost to Medicare for adults falls at $31.3 billion with a projection to increase 55% by 2030. The USPSTF says studies showed the use of exercise will improve several fall-related outcomes. The lack of exercise, among other factors with aging, leads to cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle atrophy, poor balance, and a loss of elasticity for flexibility affecting a range of motion. Gillespie et al (2012) say a variety of exercise medicine-based implementations have shown a lowered occurrence in falls. Scientists are working hard to expand the evidence to ascertain the rationale for exercise/movement in isolation or in combination with other therapeutic regimes as being a secondary medicinal therapy. Recent evidence layout health guidelines supporting exercise promotion paired with nutrition to better address lessening the need for pharmacological therapy. Gill et al (2014) uses exercise as a means to address fall prevention but also the secondary positive effects from exercise like bone density, muscle atrophy retarding, circulation improvements, balance and coordination, cardiovascular health, and mental clarity.

The epidemiology of a sedentary lifestyle amongst senior citizens results in a loss of independence, weight gain, loss of flexibility, loss of muscle and strength, the decline in aerobic health, loss in bone density and more. All of these secondary complications are taking into consideration without mentioning actual conditions which may attack the body like arthritis, dementia, hypertension, diabetes, and so on. Durstine et al (2008) express concern for the costs directly resulting from chronic medical conditions and those related to indirect costs from lost wages and loss of work. Guirguis-Blake et al (2018) details falls are the most frequently occurring reason for injury associated morbidity and mortality among senior citizens. They reviewed existing literature on fall prevention programs to inform the United States Preventive Services Task Force on the effectiveness of the programs. The clarity in the paradigm supporting remaining physically active has shown to be a cost-effective, relatively safe, and efficacious approach to reducing premature morbidity and mortality. Exercise presents a means to address biological factors which may be potentially responsible for chronic disease and death. Durstine et al (2008) shows us the exercise may improve body composition, improve lipid lipoprotein profiles, improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, reduce blood pressure, improve autonomic tone, enhance immune system function, reduce systemic inflammation, decrease blood coagulation, improve coronary blood flow, augment cardiac function, enhance endothelial function and improve psychological well-being. Continuing advancements in the paradigm of exercise are medicine if growing with critical evidence supporting these health benefits. Also, the use of resistance training is becoming more preferred over that of aerobic training from past instances. Researchers are understanding higher levels of musculoskeletal fitness are being associated with better risk factor profiles, better bone density, lower risks of developing a functional limitation and nonfatal disease. Understanding how the body responds to particular stimuli from movement activities is pertinent for an allied health practitioner to increase their understanding while working with seniors.

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