Effect of Surface Treatment on the Micro-Shear Bond Strength to Resin Composite after Water Aging
Resin composite is a standard approach that is applied in the restoration of different materials in the dental practice since it comes with multiple benefits such as the adhesion, esthetics, mechanical properties, and the conservative. The process of repair also plays a significant role in restoring the lifetime of the composite restorations where silane is used in the repairing procedure. The effect of surface treatment on the micro-shear strength are different as a result of the unequal; fillers. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface treatment on the micro-shear bond strength to resin composite after water aging. Several studies have evaluated the repair bonding strength in composite resins. Various surface treatments influence the repair strength in composite restorations. The use of an intermediate layer, whether an adhesive agent alone or in combination with a silane coupling primer, has been proposed to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding to the surface.
The following table is a summary of the materials that are used in the experiment to determine the effect of Surface Treatment on the Micro-Shear Bond Strength to Resin Composite after Water Aging;
Table 1: Summary of Materials used in Surface Treatment Experiments on the Shear Bond Strength
Kuraray, Okayama, Japan
Silanated Ba glass, silanated colloidal SiO2, silanated SiO2(0.1–15 µm)
3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA
Bis-GMA, UDMA, Bis-EMA, TEGDMA.
SiO2/SrO2clusters (0.8–1.4 µm), SiO2(20 nm)
Estelit sigma Quick Universal Composit
Tokuyama Dental, Japan
Silica–zirconia fillers, silica–titania fillers.
Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan
Aluminofluoro-borosilicate glass, S-PRG filler.
Clearfi l SE One
Kuraray Noritake Dental,
MDP, Bis-GMA, HEMA, hydrophobic
DMA, sodium fluoride, silanated
colloidal silica, accelerators, initiators,
CQ, ethanol, water (pH 2.3)
Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator: PA
Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Japan)
MPS, hydrophobic aromatic dimethacrylate
Discussion on the Materials
The Beautiful II
The Beautifil II that has the aluminiflour borosilicate glass, and the S-PRG filler, and it has been made to stimulate the internal structure to deal with the ideal light (Kubo, 2000). It is also known to having a perfect versatility with the long lasting natural shade that is perfect in enhancing different processes (Abdel-karim, 2014). The high fill we load as well as the flexural ability improves the long-lasting stability under strenuous conditions in both the internal and the external restorations that are useful in laminating the core build-ups (Shofu, 2013). It is also fast and easy in polishing creating an outstanding surface that lusters the remains over a certain time, which is essential for the process (Shofu, 2013b). It has the following fillers; Aluminofluoro-borosilicate glass, S-PRG filler (Cariology, 2016)
Figure 1: The Micro-shear Bond Strength (Source: Cariology, 2016)
Figure 2: The Failure Mode (Source: Cariology, 2016)
Figure 3: The Clearfil AP-X (Source: Dentimarc, 2012)
This is light-cure, and the radiopaque restorative resin is providing the precise color matching with high physical properties such as the high ploshability that result to the outstanding interior and external restorations (Kuraray, 2011). The material is suitable for the process since it has a substantial strength and durability (Kuraray, CLEARFIL AP-X, 2015). It can be polishable, and it is easy to be handled (Kuraray, Clearfil AP-X , 2015). It also contains enough radiopacity and has high restoration capacity. It has the following fillers Silanated Ba glass, silanated colloidal SiO2, silanated SiO2 (0.1–15 µm) (Cariology, 2016)
Figure 4: The Micro-shear bond strength
Figure 5: The failure mode
Figure 6: FiltekTM Supreme (Source: 3M ESPE 2016)
The FiltekTM Supreme used in the experiment contains an excellent polish that enhances the retention of the microfill, it also has an advanced fluorescence (Science, 2013). It is easy to use and provides the color that is coded by both the opacity and the bold that identifies and reads labels fast (ESPE, 2010). It is also provides improved handling of the translucent shades (ESPE, Filtek™ Supreme XTE U, 2010). The remarkable interior of the FiltekTM Supreme poses an outstanding strength with a broad range of both the shades and this is accompanied by the expanded selection of the shades (ESPE, 2014). The 3M ESPE`s gives it the capacity to handle the nanofiller technology giving it the restorations for both the strength and the esthetics (Cariology, 2016).
The shades without the translucent, white and the extra shades are applicable in enhancing the clinician’s ability in recreating the lifelike appearance of the natural elements (ESPE, 2016). The shading is however achieved through the intensive analysis of the colors such as the value, hue and the chroma that results in the visual perception of the esthetic composite restoration. However, the efficiency of the material is enhanced in such a way that the translucent shades have the combination of the non-agglomerates silica nanofiller that is bound to the silica nanocluster that has the agglomerates of the primary silica nanoparticles approximately 75nm in size (Cariology, 2016). This size is expected to range between the 0.6 and 1.4 microns. The fillers, in this case, are; SiO2/SrO2clusters (0.8–1.4 µm), SiO2 (20 nm) (Cariology, 2016). During an experiment, there are two modes that are used to describe the results and these are Micro-shear bond strength (MPa), and the failure mode which can be represented by the following graphs (Cariology, 2016).
Figure 7: The Micro-shear bond strength
Figure 8: The Failure Mode
Figure 9: Estelit sigma Quick Universal Composit (Source: Tokuyama, 2010.)
It is a supra- nano that contains restorative material using approximately 100% spherical filler technology (Tokoyuma, 2016). The material can provide equal diffusion of light that permits the forgiving shade and the superb blend during the experiment (Tokuyama, 2015). It also has the spherical fillers that create less wear of the interior content. It also provides an exceptional polishability as well as the long term polish retention. This is accompanied by the unique versatility creamy that is non-stick in handling the great resistance that may take place during the experiment (Tokuyama, Estelite Sigma Quick (2013 Product Award), 2010). The following are the importance of using the equipment; it has impressive polishability, high gloss retention, supra-nano spherical and gentle in opposing the detention. The fillers are; silica–zirconia fillers, silica–titania fillers (Cariology, 2016).
Figure 10: The Micro-shear Bond Strength
Figure 11: The Failure Mode
Figure 12: Clearfi l SE One (Source: Kuraray, 2012)
The material is pure with the light cure bonding system that has a water-based primer (Kuraray, 2012). The ability to provide enhanced bonding gives it both the strength and the sealing properties that are applied to the all light-cured restoration. It also has the Outer Case that permits the delivery system to direct the contents in finger control at the same time (Morales, 2009). It has some benefits when used in the experiment such as fast and easy to use, lack of decalcification, strong bond in dentin, and the porcelain (Anon, 1999). There are direct filling restorations that use the light-cure composite, the surface has the prosthetic appliances that are made up of porcelain, hybrid ceramics as well as the cured composite resin (Asande, 2009). The following are its composition MDP, Bis-GMA, HEMA, hydrophobic DMA, sodium fluoride, silanated colloidal silica, accelerators, initiators, CQ, ethanol, water (pH 2.3 (Cariology, 2016)).
In conclusion, the effect of surface treatment on the micro-shear strength are different as a result of the unequal; fillers. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface treatment on the micro-shear bond strength to resin composite after water aging. The above materials are made with unique qualities to ensure that the process is efficient. The most important element in all the materials is the ability to restore.
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