Free Essay: Database Modelling and Database Design

Published: 2023-02-07
Free Essay: Database Modelling and Database Design
Type of paper:  Case study
Categories:  Data analysis Problem solving Government Automotive industry
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1809 words
16 min read

Over the years non-autonomous vehicles have been used in the transport sector. While using non-autonomous vehicles, many costs are encountered. Drivers are needed to drive the automotive vehicles, which make it seem more expensive. Therefore the government must manage the traffic flow in any given area. Governments, therefore, have invested much in managing traffic flow in many towns to ensure smooth flow of the vehicles. To mitigate the cost of managing traffic flow by the governments, the need to employ new technology is very vital.

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This work gives the measures the government can undertake to minimize the cost of managing traffic in municipal localities. As stated earlier, non-autonomous vehicles are costly to operate more so at the traffic flow level. It should be considered that it is harder to control human being than machines. It takes less effort and expenditure to control machine than human being since human being require close supervision (Chen, 2017). Introduction of autonomous vehicles, which are also known as a self-driven car, driverless car or robotic vehicles, therefore, will help in controlling traffic in municipal localities by the government. Robotic vehicles perceive their environment surrounding them; hence, they drive themselves. When the vehicles are keyed in the system that monitors traffic flow, it will be easier to control traffic flow.

The introduction of autonomous vehicles will have benefits to everyone, including the government (Chen, 2017). The flow of cars will be systematic. The sensor enables the vehicles to keep the required distance between them hence reducing jam. The non-autonomous vehicle at first will eliminate drivers who may at time be stubborn while on the road. The control of traffic will be more comfortable in a way that the computer will be used to schedule the time when each vehicle will be on the road and for how long. Also, the speed of the autonomous car will significantly be determined by the computer hence controlling traffic jams on the avenues. It may take time to implement the operation of autonomous vehicles since the elimination of non-autonomous vehicles. Also on the side of the establishment, it will consume time since the road, and other requirements like computers and cameras will take time to be installed.

The government should, therefore, embrace this innovation by ensuring it eliminates non-autonomous vehicles on the road. Autonomous vehicles will be the only vehicles operating on the road to control the traffic flow in localities. To efficiently implement this, the government should, therefore, be at the frontline to help in the process.

Background Information

Since 1950s trials of automotive have been taking place on the automated driving system (ADS). Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory first produced a semi-automated car in the year 1977, which used particular streets, two cameras, and analog computer (Chen, 2017). On test-drive, the vehicle reached 30 kilometers per hour. In the 1980s, the first real autonomous car was produced from the collaboration of the projects from Carnegie Mellon University's Navlab and ALV projects (Chen, 2017). In 1985, ALV demonstrated robot cars which were driven on the two-lane avenue at speed up to 31 kilometers per hour. By 1995, autonomous vehicles were improved to the extent of coast-to-coast drive United States (Litman, 2017).

In 1991, the USA produced $650 million to research the national automated highway system. The research was successful, but there were shortcomings, for instance, there was no direct funding of the computerized highways. In 2017, Audi produced A8, an autonomous vehicle which did not require safety checks by the driver (Litman, 2017). The car went at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour. It was then announced in the year 2017 by the way that it had kicked off the testing of the driverless vehicle which did not contain safety driver in driver position although there was an employee in the car. By 2018, Waymo was the first commercial company to drive autonomous vehicles as a taxi in the United States.

Despite the benefit of the car, it is dangerous if not well maintained on the road. Several people suggest that every vehicle should be dependent to the driver for smooth traveling. Other factors require human intelligence and not a robot. To secure the way and the lives of travelers, suggestions have been on board that at least drivers' position should be considered in a vehicle (Chen, 2017). This argument may be right, but to some extent, not. At first, before setting the robot vehicles on the road, many aspects are to be considered for efficiency. Road itself is a vital element in transport (Litman, 2015). Eliminating non-autonomous vehicles is a nightmare to the government. Many of the individuals who pose driver-controlled vehicles will not easily accept to remove their vehicles on the road. Demonstrations may occur, people protesting against the process of introduction of autonomous vehicles. The process should be gradual. Therefore, before the government implements the use of autonomous vehicles, it should consider the efficiency of the road. The road should be in good conditions before the driverless vehicles are deployed to offer services.

After having the right road that accommodates autonomous vehicles, maintenance is essential. The streets should, therefore, be monitored accordingly for better transport. Other crucial aspects that should be considered in the process of digitalizing vehicles is the electronic map (Koopman, 2017). The electronic maps should be provided and maintained accordingly. The system that caters for the automatic map should be kept 24 7 at work to enable the transport. Minus the electronic route, the direction will be a problem.

The navigation car system on the hand should be considered in the process of using autonomous vehicles. This will enable the system that is controlling the car to track easily the position of the vehicle, the speed at which the vehicle is moving and how long the vehicle has traveled. Also, the location system is very vital (Koopman, 2017). The location system helps the system to identify where the vehicle is. For instance, the stages can easily be identified via location system.

Other aspects like the global path planning, the radar perception, the visual perception, the vehicle control and perception of sped control are all essential to be considered in the process of introducing the driverless vehicles in the local areas. All of the stated aspects should be implemented fast and systems to maintain them established before the introduction of the autonomous.

The autonomous vehicle has features such as lane-keep-assist (LKA), Traffic-jam-assist (TJA) AND Advanced driver assistant system (ADAS) (Koopman, 2017). The vehicles make decisions on their own. Hence, the features assist them in making decisions. The human concern is required on the roads more so when the vehicle has failed to execute specific tasks. For sensing purposes, the vehicles contain radar, liDAR, camera ultrasonic, and GPS or IMU (Koopman, 2017). On the side of detection, there must detect objects on routes, in-context on 2D or HD maps, and road network attributes (Koopman, 2017). On the perception level, environmental model, localization, object recognition, and object tracking are required. Under the decision, obstacle avoidance, path planning, prediction, behavior planning, and long control are needed.

Statement of the Problem

Due to the traffic flow problem experienced in the local municipal governments, the need to regulate it is vital. Having better forms of transport and systems to control the traffic flow is very important. Considering time, expense and the damages caused by traffic jams on avenues, alternative measures which should be more sophisticated is needed to combat the losses got on traffic jams.

Literature Review

Nation Highway and Transport Safety Administration gave out new guidelines for ADS in 2016. Through the release of these guidelines, therefore it is not illegal to drive an autonomous vehicle. Any government can implement the introduction of driverless vehicles provided the guidelines stipulated by the NHTSA are followed to the later (Litman, 2017). In this proposal, therefore, nothing contained here is out of the legal set up by various managing agencies and boards.

In 2011, Nevada was the first country to introduce and legalize the operation of robot vehicles. Other states including California, Colorado, New York, plus others then come later and also authorized the activities of the autonomous vehicle (Koopman, 2017). Implementing the operation of the autonomous vehicles in the local governments, therefore, will bring sophistication and the new face that will mark the new beginning of the transport system which is efficient and more reliable in operation. It should be noted that this system of robot vehicles is easy to manage more so by the government.

The government will have an easy task to monitor and generally control the transport system if the robot vehicles are employed. A central place will be established, which will allow the management of transport system easier (Koopman, 2017). Since the vehicles are machine-oriented, less labor will be needed. Less corruption and braking of traffic laws will occur. This is because the system much depends on monitoring and keenness is therefore adhered to.

Since 2011, many countries, including Florida, made it possible for any tests and safety developments which encourage driverless vehicles (Kong, 2015). This is done by the countries accepting the public roads to be used to test the autonomous vehicles hence supporting in the improvement of the transport sector. By doing so by the government, innovation is encouraged. Innovation is something that every country yearns for. Simplifying things from being hard and complicated is acceptable. Via the introduction of these vehicles, which will not need drivers, innovation standard will be higher. More will be done to develop on the existence of the innovation, which is the introduction of the driverless vehicle.

Putting in mind that vehicles have been evolving over the years, they are to continue developing until good vehicles are attained. For instance, automotive vehicles have features that are of more standards than manual vehicles. In this era, therefore, more sophisticated vehicles are needed to control traffic flow in the local municipal governments (Chiappetta, 2015). The economy of the nation will also be impacted when autonomous vehicles are introduced. Since drivers will not have jobs in the vehicles, this will save on the cost that is used to pay for drivers (Litman, 2017). In schools, taxi or even trucking fleet, the displacement of the drivers gives a chance to save on the money. Autonomous vehicles can also play the part of the field workers, for instance, slashing. Industries will also have benefits from robot vehicles. Mining and cultivating industries will have a beneficial impact since robot vehicles can do the work efficiently (Koopman, 2017). On the driving safety, driverless vehicles reduce traffic accidents through orderly driving that is computerized.

Research Methodology


The observation was one of the methods used in the research. Scrupulousness was applied while observing an autonomous vehicle. The case study was conducted in two-three different countries, including California, Florida, and Colorado. The autonomous vehicles operating in these countries were keenly observed on the way o operation.


The questionnaire was also used in the study. Several questions were written and forwarded to concerned companies that manufacture the robot vehicles, including Audi.

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