Paper Example on the Pneumococcal Vaccine

Published: 2023-03-15
Paper Example on the Pneumococcal Vaccine
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Data analysis Medicine Community health
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1145 words
10 min read

The question that led to the review of these articles is the effectiveness of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV 23) compared to that of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13) at preventing the incidence of pneumococcal-related infections besides reducing the mortality rate in adults who are vulnerable to pneumonia. An understanding of the mechanism through which these vaccines perform is crucial in assessing their effectiveness of the vaccines. A review of these articles will assist in understanding their relevance to the main question.

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There is a high mortality rate among elderly parents that are associated with pneumonia. The mortality rate can be reduced with the proper administration of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 and/or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13. However, there are some factors that ought to be considered while selecting the most suitable vaccine. Also, the cost of the vaccine is another factor for consideration. There is a cost difference between the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13. The most cost-effective vaccine is essential for elderly patients who require the vaccine.

A Review of Articles

Impact and cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease among the elderly in the Netherlands

This article is useful in answering the research question. Quantitative research, it is based on the collected data. The research question for this article aims at determining how 23 valent pneumococcal is effective in reducing pneumonia in people with high-risk factors. This research article is connected to the PICOT question because it assesses the cost-effectiveness of PVC 13 compared to the use of the PPV 23 vaccine. In that case, the article will be useful in answering the question. This article reviews the mortality rate among adults aged 60, 65 or 70 situated in The Netherlands. It parasitized a cost-effective model (Thorrington, et al., 2018).

Efficacy of 23 valent pneumococcal vaccines and improving survival in nursing home residents

This is a quantitative article since numerical data on the incidences of infections were collected. This article is related to the PICOT question as it tests the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines in the prevention of pneumococcal infections. Situated in Japanese nursing homes, the article involves interventions from participants who were administered with the 23 valent pneumococcal vaccines. It is also related to the question as it tests on the mortality rate.

Methods of Study

The first article on impacts and cost-effectiveness employed a static and cost-effective parameterized model. The article also used projected trends. The different strategies used vaccines price list against which they were evaluated and was conducted using a ten-year time period. The second article entailed a random administration of the 23 valent pneumococcal vaccines (Thorrington, et al., 2018).

The first article used specific groups of people and as such, it was not random. The advantage of this technique is that it eliminates the chances of biasness and represents the target population. The disadvantage, however, is that it is difficult to achieve the intended or desired sample. The second article used a specific population sample. As such it was easy to achieve the outcome of the research study. However, it is disadvantaged in the sense that it may be difficult to acquire the desired sample as it is specific and bias.

Results of the Study

From the first article, the conclusion that using the PPV23 vaccine for the elderly is cost-effective was agreed. This means that the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 was found to be cost-effective. For our study, this conclusion is useful in answering the type of vaccine that would be most pocket-friendly as well as effective for the elderly. That said, it is recommendable for the elderly to be vaccinated using the PPV23 vaccine. From the second article, key findings indicated that the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 reduced pneumococcal-related incidences as well as those of improved mortality. Furthermore, it is recommendable that the PPV23 vaccine should be administered to those adults with higher chances of suffering from pneumonia.

The implications of the key findings stated in the first article review are that pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 is cost-effective and for that reason, elderly patients opt to go for the vaccine. The other implications associated with the first article is that the most cost-effective strategy was to vaccinate those aged 70years. Vaccinating the elderly using pneumococcal conjugated vaccine 13 or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 was dominated PPV23 under all investigated scenarios. This finding was attributed to the low cost associated with PPV23.

The implications drawn from a review of the second article suggested that the PPV23 should be administered to elderly patients who have a great risk of suffering from pneumonia. Since the finding established that the vaccine also reduced mortality rate and incidences of contracting pneumonia, the implications are that its use is advised and most elderly patients go for the vaccine.

Outcome Comparison

My first anticipated outcome for the PICOT question is the identification of the most cost-effective pneumococcal vaccination. This would be essential in the identification and recommendation of the most pocket-friendly vaccine for the elderly as it will assist in making decisions. The answers to this question will be generated from a review of the first article and its relevance to the PICOT question.

Secondly, the other expectation is assessment and findings regarding mortality-related deaths. Furthermore, recommendations on the best possible means of averting the condition also form part of the anticipated outcomes. Identification of the key factors causing the deaths is to be achieved and the possible relevant solutions developed. The second article will play a key role in the documentation of the reasons behind pneumococcal-related deaths and the most effective vaccine for preventing these deaths.

The outcomes compare though findings that document the most cost-effective vaccinations for the condition. From the first article, it is clear that the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 is the most cost-effective when compared to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13. On the other note, the vaccine will suit the majority of the pockets especially for the elderly who are under discussion as well as the ones in need of the vaccine. This finding justifies the hypothesis that there is a need for a cost-effective vaccine. It also justifies the availability of as the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 as a cheaper alternative to the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine13

In addition, the outcome compares to the anticipated outcome of a vaccine that reduces the mortality rate of elderly individuals with pneumonia. The two, further, compare on the basis of suggestion that these elderly individuals ought to be given the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 which dominates the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13. This outcome means that the two articles that were reviewed are related to the PICOT question and also have significant elements that are important in answering the PICOT question.


Thorrington, D., Rossum, L. v., Knol, M., Melker, H. d., Rumke, H., Hak, E., & Hoek, A. J. (2018, February 9). Impact and cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease among elderly in the Netherlands. Public Library of Science, 13(2), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0192640

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