Answers to Module 1 - Intellectual sophistry
Intellectual sophistry entails clever reasoning though has got fallacy and deception. It is true I engage in intellectual sophistry when faced with an argument that requires me to cover for a person and at the same time appear genuine to the authorities to cover for the truth without being noticed.
The intellectual standards and elements introduced by Paul and Elder also challenge my sophistic thinking based on the aspect of traits and the elements involved in reasoning. On the part of the trait, Paul and Elder argue about intellectual integrity something which my sophistic thinking fails to recognize. There is also lack of fairness because all the effort I put in place is for not revealing the truth. The elements of reasoning also inform about the implication; this challenges my sophistic thinking since the truth will not be revealed, and the implications may be negative. For example, a mistake may end up not being corrected.
Answers to Module 2 - The modalities
The modalities that help me think clearly, systematically and creatively are those of visual and auditory. I can learn and synthesize information better when I have the visual of the problem and develop charts and illustrations which will further enhance my understanding of the problem being addressed. On the part of auditory, verbal explanation of the concepts also help in better comprehension of the issue to be solved. Therefore, the combination of the two, plays a better role in assisting me to think clearly, creatively and systematically.
In the event I learn through one modality, let's say kinesthetic, the other modalities can help me think more creatively since they perform the secondary duty of perfecting the primary role played by the one modality used for learning. I will be able to come up with methods like the novel frameworks which may be used in replacing traditional methods of learning.
Answers to Module 3 - Socratic questioning
Socratic questioning gets construed as the form of a disciplined question which may be used in pursuing thoughts and ideas in different directions for various objectives. These include the exploration of ideas that may appear difficult, those that entail certain truths, those who may be open to issues and certain problems and even those that are destined on uncovering certain assumptions. Socratic question, therefore, helps us to distinguish what we know and that which is unknown.
As I, therefore, think about personal, professional and social commitments, the concepts, data or decisions that require Socratic questioning are those which are likely to lead to the realization of certain objectives. The objectives may be organization, in case, the thought is professional or those that gives personal evaluations. Socratic question mainly helps a professional to make decisions while also considering the available risks and how to ensure that they are avoided or mitigated. At a personal level, they help in making proper decisions after the evaluation of the pros and cons.
Answers to Module 4 - The cognitive biases
cognitive biases which I recognize in my thinking include the bandwagon effect since I usually adopt a belief when many are of the opinion. The other is on the choice-supportive bias. I make preference about something I feel positive towards even if it has many flaws. The last one is on herding where I tend to flock with people I share with problems. The step which I can take to correct them is by first knowing who I am and what is right. After that, I will be able to employ Socratic questioning before making any decision.
Some of the cognitive fallacies which I also recognize in my thinking are those of appeal to authority where I adopt a decision based on the position of the person affirming it. There is also the appeal to flattery fallacy where I adopt a point of view based on the compliment given in the argument. I am also a victim of the gambler's fallacy; this is when the past occurrences influence my thinking. The following are some of the steps I can take towards correcting them, being open-minded, considering other people's thought, evaluating the pros and cons of an issue objectively before making a decision.
Answers to Module 5 - Media bias
There are various types of media bias which also occurs differently. The types of bias in which we will review their differences are the media bias by omission and by selection. The former will be type I while the latter type II. Media bias by omission entails the media leaving some part of the story to cover certain truths, for example, in an accident, the FBI reporting the information about the survivors and covering those that have died. On the other hand, the bias by selection entails the media outlet sourcing that information which supports an opposing point of view. For example, covering information about one political even while giving blackout to the other.
The two differs also differ with propaganda since it entails giving biased information, one which is misleading and used to promote a course. Such information lack truth. The common example is in the political arena where politicians will always speak about issues they are unlikely to fulfill to be given elective positions.
Answers to Module 6 - The scientific strategy
The scientific strategy for better critical reasoning which can help me reason is that of problem-solving. The strategy is the scientific approach to critical thinking where one considers the issue (problem) and evaluate the possible options before coming to the solution.
It is a better strategy because it first accepts the challenge and allows a person to have an open mind while addressing it. It also leaves the answer more of open-ended thus allowing for the provision of numerous ideas and the synthesis of knowledge until the final answer is achieved.
Answers to Module 7 - Kohlberg's stages of moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development take into consideration the adaptation of Jean Piaget's psychological theory. He used most of Piaget's argument in providing analysis of the displayed moral reasoning instead of its conclusions. This idea was classified in about six distinct stages.
In consideration of Kohlberg's chat about the stages of moral development, I would place myself at stage 4 which entails law and order. I have reached a stage where the society is key when it comes to making Judgement. I must consider those decisions which can be emulated by the young ones and do not break or contradict the law.
Answers to Module 8 - Strategic thinking
Strategic thinking entails the process of defining the way in which people think about various issues, have a different assessment of ideas and develop a future both for themselves and other people. It is amongst the most known effective and valuable tools which can be applied to decisions particularly those that are related to work and personal life.
Therefore, the strategic thinking process which might be best for planning my career development is that of carrying out observations and getting informed of the current trends. The strategy will help me weigh the job market and take up a career opportunity which is marketable and in demand. The questions which might also spark creativity are on what the world needs, what approach should be taken and how the career option is going to address some of the existing global challenges.
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