Most professional players have made mistakes during their training. Training mistakes are one of the common factors that lead to injury for most professionals in sporting activities. This article aims at identifying common errors that are made by professional runners and professional footballers. The paper's goal is to compile a complete playbook to guide professional distance runners or professional footballers on what to do. Some of the errors that distance runners make include using the wrong shoes, over striding, among others. Footballers also make mistakes during training both as the season is ongoing and off-season. These mistakes include not getting enough sleep, using poor Olympic lifting tactics, and gaining weight by eating junk food. This paper only aims to inform professional players and distance runners about the mistakes they might be made to correct them.
Common Mistakes Made by Long Distance Athletes During Training
Distance runners make the mistake of training on crowned roads, mainly in rural areas where elite runners enjoy training. Crown roads refer to higher surfaces in the middle and slopes toward the berm. Professional long-distance runners practice by facing traffic. The practice keeps their left foot in the downhill position while their right foot maintains an uphill position. This training technique is wrong as it exposes runners to injury. The method causes the straining of the iliotibial band on the left leg and pes anserine tendons on the right leg (Sallade & Koch, n.d.). The correct technique to use when training on crowned roads is to alternate the uphill and downhill feet as it ensures the individual's safety.
Long-distance runners make the mistake of wearing the wrong type of shoes during training. According to Nigg et al. (2015), some runners wear older shoes or the wrong kind of shoe, which exposes them to injuries. Runners should consult knowledgeable individuals on the right type of shoes to use depending on their running style and foot type. Runners should replace their shoes after they cover 300-500 miles as a lack of cushioning make them incur injuries. This practice calls the runner to buy a new pair of shoes halfway the life of his shoes as it will assist them to notice that the other footwear is worn out (Malisoux et al., 2015). A new shoe has exposed a runner to blisters (Act.alz.org, n.d.). A runner should, therefore, the balance between old and new shoes.
Some long-distance runners train on a different terrain than that of their racecourse. The runner should determine whether his or her race will take place on pavement, flat surface, and steep uphill, downhill dirt of a combination of different terrains. Training on the on different grounds makes the muscles to adapt to diverse terrain. A long-distance runner should be guided by the terrain of their racecourse when training (Roadrunnersports.com, n.d. ). If on the race day a marathoner will run on pavement, they should train on it. However, there may use other terrain but dedicate most of their training to that terrain.
Some long-distance athletes lack a regular training program and periodization. Gauthler (n.d.) compared this behavior as building a house on top of a weak foundation. He further argued that a runner should be guided by their racing calendar, fitness, and the types of races that they will be competing in. According to Gauthier, repeating the same drills in training throughout the year provides limited benefits and fitness improvements to the runner. The reason for coming up with a program that a runner needs to follow is to avoid training with the same intensity and over the same distance all the time (Act.alz.org, n.d.). Lack of periodization exposes marathoners to overtraining, poor performance, and injuries. The researcher further argued that this is one of the reasons that make individuals burn out three quarters through a competitive race. A runner should develop a program that fits all his or her requirements.
A long-distance runner may make a mistake of training too hard. Professional runners may be tempted to feel that they need to train hard every time they train. This attitude makes them indulge in physical exercises that are of no benefit to them. Researchers have argued against hard training as it has no benefits to the runner. Gauthler (n.d.) argues that hard workout results in a low level of fitness improvements on the training time investment. Long-distance runners may fail to establish some balance in their training (Act.alz.org, n.d.). This makes their training to be one dimensional increasing their risks to injuries. The researcher further argues that runners should include other types of activities and exercises such as swimming and bike riding.
Gauthler (n.d.) warns that a long-distance runner may not train hard enough. Long-distance runners should seek a coach's assistance or come up with a well-planned and structured training program. The researcher further argues that a runner should incorporate neuromuscular and anaerobic capacity workouts to improve performance. The University of Colorado sports medicine supports that a runner should switch 20 % of their weekly running with other activities such as hiking, strength training, and swimming. Strength training is crucial as it reduces the chances of being injured. The runner should target the feet, calves, quads, and other leg muscles (Roadrunnersports.com, n.d.). They further argue against the notion that one someone interested in long-distance running should only train by covering long miles.
Some long-distance runners make the mistake of not taking enough water during training. Most runners are worried about the effect of water on side stitches. This worry makes many of them underestimate the amount of fluid that they lose during training drills. This behavior makes many of them suffer from dehydration, which harms their health and performance. Two percent dehydration of a runner's body weight leads to a significant decline in their performance. According to luff (n.d), a runner should take water one hour before the running exercises. Runners should also follow their thirst to identify the right moment to take water. She further asserts that the color of their urine should guide marathoners. Urine color should have a light lemonade color, and incase its yellow; the individual should continue rehydrating.
Most long-distance runners fail to listen to their bodies during training. Most runners believe in outworking their recovery problems. Some athletes are not concerned with how the training impacts their bodies, how little sleep time they have, or how different joints are hurting. These long-distance runners keep it from their trainers, attend scheduled sessions, and keep training (Bishop, n.d.). Some athletes end up using drugs to reduce the pain associated with exercise. This has led to some athletes getting banned from international events due to issues relating to doping.
Most long-distance runners have also been making the mistake of excessive training on hills and hard surfaces. Although hill training is essential in helping runners to prepare for a marathon competition, extreme hill training makes runners to be exposed to injuries. Runners who train uphill expose their triceps to more demand for strength and flexibility, which may lead to calf strains (Sallade & Koch, n.d). Hard surfaces have been blamed for being a significant cause of injuries to athletes. A runner should use a shoe with shock absorption to prevent hurting their forefoot and train mainly on softer grounds.
Most distance runners make a mistake of rapidly increasing their mileage and speed. A runner may increase their mileage and pace when they are preparing for a vital race. Sandler and Koch (n.d) argue that an athlete should apply a gradual shift in training to prevent injuring Achilles tendinitis. A runner should use a 10 % rule when increasing their workload every week. A runner should not expect a quick progression, but they should do it slowly. Safely and systematically to avoid injury. Sallade and Koch further assert that runners get more excited as the competition approaches, which makes them fall for the trap of adjusting their speed. When not carried out cautiously, an increasingly rapid pace makes some of them pull from those races due to hamstring injury taken during this transition. The researchers posit that a runner should have a knowledge base on running fast, thorough stretching of muscles, and a good training base.
Many runners, especially beginners, tend training without taking care of their nutritional requirements. These runners ignore the impact of nutrition on their health, performance, and recovery. Whatever the athlete takes and when they take, it has a significant effect on their performance and recovery process (Burke et al., 2019). They further assert that runners should eat a lot of carbohydrates an hour and a half to two hours before training. Running for over one hour is not a simple exercise. Hence, long-distance runners lose many calories during this process, which they should try to regain by using energy gels and jelly beans (Luff, n.d.). After training, a runner should quickly replenish their energy. Luff argues that the muscles receive more rebuilding glucose if taken within the first thirty minutes after workout. Eating immediately after work out is advantageous to runner as it reduces muscle stiffness and soreness. The runner should take food in a ratio of one gram of protein to three grams of carbohydrate.
Besides, some long-distance runners make the mistake of overstriding during training drills to maximize speed and running efficiency. The assumption that making bigger strides will increase their speed and enhance running efficiency is misinformed. Rather than improving efficiency, big strides make an athlete land on their heels with the foot ahead of their body's center of gravity, exposing them to injuries such as shin splints (Souza, 2016). Overstriding is also disadvantageous as it increases an athlete's consumption of energy.
Moreover, long-distance runners make mistakes of trying new workout drills close to race day. A long-distance runner may start developing feelings that they have grown into a pro after a prolonged training period. This makes most of them feel that their daily routine is boring. As a result, some may make a move by coming up with new workout exercises (Roadrunnersports.com, n.d.). Long-distance athletes should stick to their plans and keep new activities until after the race day. During the preparation periods, an athlete should ignore new advice from individuals. The only information that a marathoner should take during this period is the one given by their body, as ignoring body massage can have a detrimental impact on their body.
Common Mistakes Made by Footballers During Training
Footballers train to enhance their speed, power, strength, and positioning, which add considerable value to their careers. Just like long-distance runners, footballers are not perfect during training and hence are prone to making mistakes. Footballers make training mistakes during the season and offseason. During the offseason, a player works harder to improve their athletic characteristics. One mistake if football training can render a player to be out for more extended periods. Players who have good intentions of training hard during the offseason to improve their athletic attributes have to be cautious as one silly mistake or poor choice could derail their workout program.
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