Essay Sample on Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

Published: 2023-02-16
Essay Sample on Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Teaching Learning School
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1466 words
13 min read

The cardinal principle of secondary education is a report that was written by the National Education Association. The report aimed at reviewing the committee, guiding the reorganization as well as developing all the secondary schools in the United States. It was also the direct growth of the committee's work, on articulating both high school and colleges (National Education Association, 1918). This essay has looked at the background of the report, the arguments or proposal made in the description, personal analysis on whether the work offers good or bad ideas and the evidence of influential of the work in today's schools.

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In preparation of the report, the committee had to set its field's conception by emphasizing on secondary school's functions and modifications of the requirements needed during college entrance. With this, they thought that secondary schools would adapt to its work effectively and improve the possibility of increasing education in higher institutions. That to say, secondary school education should be used as a tool for preparing students for college. Besides this, secondary schools the report emphasized on how secondary should plan their work and meet their democracy needs. The commission committee aimed at issuing a statement that dealt with the organization as well as the administration of secondary schools, by having aims, content, and methods of various studies as well. The committee also planned to meet once or twice every year, where the reports of various committees were discussed from different perspectives. Then the outcomes of these results were revised or rewritten into perfection (National Education Association, 1918). The reports were also criticized such that the reviewing committee would exclude the unnecessary information and agree on most essential or fundamental principles in directing secondary schools and colleges. After reviewing and revising the reports, it was presented as discussed in this essay.

The main argument of the report was the need for reorganizing. Here, secondary education was not only determined by the committee but also the society needs student's characters and the availability of knowledge both in theory and in practical work. All these factors are always in a dynamic situation. For instance, the society is still in a development process hence the characters of modifications in secondary schools are always under the amendment and the theories and sciences have been depending regularly on new information. Therefore, secondary education is observed as other established agency in society (National Education Association, 1918). The report also looked at various changes in society. This change has been proved within the past few decades in America. From this argument, the lives of Americans have been affecting the activities of individuals profoundly. That to say, the society was expected to cope with the community problems directly, interpersonal relationship and state and national government. However, the arising problems from these phases of life are interrelated closely and call for both intelligence and efficiency's degree that cannot be secured through the secondary education without broadening the scope of schooling (Warren, 2016).

Changes in population in secondary schools were another goal for this report. This has been very effective since there has been a significant change in the past 25 years in the United States. That to say, the secondary school's population has been modified by allowing a large entrance of students with varying capacities, social heredity, aptitudes, and life's destinies. Additionally, the broadening of many secondary schools aimed at bringing many people together, which had not completed their full courses. The psychological development of children was also another role of the report. It was held that mental changes at different stages are meant to overshadow the development of the community. This was achieved first by separating secondary schools from elementary schools.

Furthermore, there was a democracy goal, which was guided by having a clear conception of democracy. This is the ideal of freedom, which the society and individuals may find fulfilling in one another.

Furthermore, the collection and the numerous civic organizations, and as a result of this relationship-ships, have become together in participating in operations that enrich lives of families to provide critical occupational services to their fellow citizens and to encourage common welfare. It, therefore, follows the members of the excellent homes, vocation, as well as citizenship that requires attention as the principal objectives. Besides immediate fulfillment of these specific responsibilities, there should be a time limit for each individual to cultivate both personal and social interests; this will create a healthy society. If properly used, this leisure will re-create the powers of various people and expand and enrich life, thus enabling them to fulfill their responsibilities more effectively. Unworthy recreational use impairs physical condition, disrupts home life, decreases professional efficiency, and destroys civic behaviors of secondary school students (Bowe et al., 2017). The trend in manufacturing experience, supported by law, is to reduce the operational hours of large people groups. While reduced hours tend to minimize the harmful reactions of prolonged stress, they increase the importance of readiness for leisure if possible. Given these considerations, education has been growing concern as an objective for the excellent use of entertainment (Fallacy, 2015.

According to my analysis, this report offered good evidence of this work's influence. This is because the responsibility in most secondary schools has increased due to social agencies. There are also substitution's significant changes through high specialization in various replacement of labor. Through connecting lives in homes and families, have decreased the responsibilities of children and has led to less unified experiences. However, there have been many changes taking place in the community, in churches, in states as well as in other institutions that have caused extensive modification in secondary schools. Besides, the changes in education theories and practices have occurred in the past few years, making significant contributions towards individual differences in aptitudes and incapacities, methods of teaching as well as the re-examination of teaching values. The modifications in psychological development have been embraced in secondary schools by the introduction of suitable and comprehensive programs and their adjustments in the secondary schools. In my conclusion on this, the naming of the goals is not meant to imply that the process of education can be divided into separate fields. Because students are indivisible, this cannot be (Kliebard, 2004). Therefore, the analysis is not all-inclusive either. However, it is believed that naming and distinguishing the goals is very necessary for directing efforts and this should be the primary educational goal.

There is evidence of the influence of this work in schools today. Life duties and leisure have been fulfilled by enhancing good health. The individual's health is also essential to the race's vitality and the nation's defense. Therefore, improving health education has been very fundamental. There are different processes that have been implemented as tools in life affairs, such as writing, reading, arithmetic computations, and oral and written expression. Consequently, commanding these essential processes is nevertheless an indiscriminate objective, although not an end in itself (Kliebard, 2004). In addition to the evidence, schools are currently realizing the already mentioned objectives depending on the ethical character of the students, which involves behavior based on principles of light, clearly perceived as well as the loyally adhered to. Moreover, schools have embraced using of leisure in reliable ways as well as vocational excellence. The current schools have become better places as discussed by Warren (2016), various duties are performed correctly as different principles are followed. Consequently, ethical character actors are applied in all other objectives at once and require explicit consideration in any national education program at the same time (Bowe et al., 2017). Precisely, most schools are considering the following as the primary objectives of education; command of fundamental processes, health, worthy of home affiliation, citizenship, and vocations, Use of leisure is worthwhile and character of ethics.

In conclusion, the commission committee that concluded on the cardinal principles of secondary education covered a wide range of discussion as applies to various aspects of secondary school. They involve methods, aims, the content of different subjects of curriculum and studies, physical training, vocational guidance, and moral values as derived from the organization and instructions of secondary schools. These principles have been applied in different schools ad has wholly changed the functioning of various schools and well as the perceptions of the students even towards the society.


Bowe, R., Ball, S. J., & Gold, A. (2017). Reforming education and changing schools: Case studies in policy sociology. Routledge.

Fallace, T. (2015).The rise and fall of scientific curriculum movement in the social

Kliebard, H. (2004). The Struggle for the American curriculum, 1893-1958. (3rd. ed.). New York:

National Education Association. (1918). Cardinal principles of secondary education: A report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Routledge. Studies, 1916-1929. The Social Studies, 106, 83-91. DOI: 10.1080/00377996. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Warren, R. (2016). Acculturation and multiculturalism of students in secondary level education programs. Wayne State University.

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