Essay Sample about Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts

Published: 2022-07-18
Essay Sample about Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Pharmacology
Pages: 2
Wordcount: 417 words
4 min read

Various aspects interfere with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of patients. It has become essential for every medical practitioner to consider these factors to prescribe the best medication for patients and even develop effective plans of care. In the case of Mr. H, the main factors that might have affected the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes include possible pathophysiological variations because of the diseases affecting the patient, poly pharmacy, and smoking (Alomar, 2014).

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Presence of numerous diseases at same time predisposes Mr. H to possible pathophysiological variations due to drug-disease interaction. A drug that is useful n treating one illness may be harmful to others (Palleria, Di Paolo, Giofre, Caglioti, Leuzzi, Siniscalchi, & Gallelli, 2013). For instance, the patient has a history of hypertension, end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD), and diabetes mellitus. While the Lisinopril (Zestril) may be useful in lowering his blood pressure, it affects his kidneys adversely worsening his situation further.

The second factor that might affect Mr. H pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes is poly pharmacy since he was visiting different prescribers for his various disease conditions. According to Abubakar, Simbak, and Haque, (2014), poly pharmacy refers to the prescription of too many medications at the same time for a single patient than clinically required. It can cause adverse drug reactions because of synergism, physiological antagonism, and drug interactions. In this case, the patent was on the observation unit with telemetry for his facial swelling and shortness of breath had a primary care provider managing his hypertension and diabetes, was seeing a nephrologist for his kidney disease, while still under Lisinopril.

Smoking might have also affected the patient's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Mr. H had been a smoker for 15 years one pack a day. Abubakar et al. (2014) record that smoking induces liver cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes CYP1A1 and 1A2, which leads to the rise in the metabolism of drugs that are a substrate to these group of enzymes and reduce their pharmacological action. In Mr. H's case, smoking might have reduces the action of v-blockers on his blood pressure.


Abubakar, A. R., Simbak, N. B., & Haque, M. (2014). Adverse drug reactions: predisposing factors, modern classifications and causality assessment. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 7(9), 14.

Alomar, M. J. (2014). Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 22(2), 83-94.

Palleria, C., Di Paolo, A., Giofre, C., Caglioti, C., Leuzzi, G., Siniscalchi, A., ... & Gallelli, L. (2013). Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in clinical management. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 18(7), 601.

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