|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Community health Human development|
The chosen assessment frameworks are Erikson's Life Stages, Havighurst's Developmental Tasks, and Pender's Health Promotion Model. Erikson's psychological, developmental stages are based on the psychosexual theory of Freud. According to this theory, there are eight developmental stages over every person's lifespan from being an infant to late adulthood. The steps include Trust vs. mistrust, initiative vs. guilt, autonomy vs. doubt or shame, identity vs. role confusion, industry vs. inferiority to mention but a few, where each stage must be resolved. According to Erikson, the completion of each stage of development successfully results in a competence sense and a healthy personality and its failure might lead to inadequacy feelings (Newman, & Newman, 2017). Nevertheless, one might use this theory in the assessment of their clients for holistic health teaching project by making them understand the developmental stages of a child to know whether they are growing appropriately or not. Also, they might use it to know the personality changes that occur in old age and adulthood and their relevance at time passes.
The central assertion of Havighurst is that development is always continuous in one's entire lifespan, and occurs in stages when a person shifts from one phase to the other using developmental tasks performance or successful problems resolution. When these developmental tasks are accomplished, people feel proud and satisfied and earn approval consequently of the society or community. According to Havighurst, the list of developmental tasks includes infancy and early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle age and later maturity (Hutteman, Hennecke, Orth, Reitz, & Specht, 2014). Therefore, one might use this theory in the assessment of their clients for holistic health teaching project by pointing out the significance of sensitive periods that are considered to be ideal moments that are teachable where people demonstrate maturation at the most conducive levels. According to Havighurst, they can also suggest that people are active learners who interact continually with a dynamic social environment.
Pender's Health Promotion Model defines health as a dynamic state that is positive instead of an absence of a disease. The model focuses on three areas which are individual experiences and characteristics, behavior outcomes and the specific behavior cognitions and effect. Pender's theory depicts that every individual has their unique personal experiences and behaviors that affect subsequent actions (McCutcheon, Schaar, & Parker, 2016). Therefore, one might use this theory in the assessment of their clients for holistic health teaching project by making people to seek their regulatory behavior actively. They might also use it to exert influence on a person through their lifespan as a reconfiguration that is self-initiated is essential for behavioral change.
Hutteman, R., Hennecke, M., Orth, U., Reitz, A. K., & Specht, J. (2014). Developmental tasks as a framework to study personality development in adulthood and old age. European Journal of Personality, 28(3), 267-278.
McCutcheon, T., Schaar, G., & Parker, K. L. (2016). Pender's Health Promotion Model and HPV Health-Promoting Behaviors among College-Aged Males: Concept Integration. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 10(1).
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2017). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.
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