Free Paper with the Annotated Bibliography Example on Management

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Annotated bibliography
Chia R. (1995). From Modern to Postmodern Organizational Analysis. Department of Management and Organization, The School of Management, University of Stirling, Scotland

Chia's article conducts an analysis from the postmodern to the modern area of organizational theory. Chia states that the difference between the terms modern and postmodern is the "style of thinking" (Chia, 1995, p. 579). However, the author expresses that while they are different they are also interdependent. Without modern you would not have postmodern. Throughout the article, it is evident that postmodern organizational theory is a new paradigm or perspective of the ideologies learned with the theories of bureaucracy, scientific management and the halo effect, just to name a few. The distinction of the modern from the postmodern can be best understood by the style of thinking. Each thinking style has its own set of "ontological commitments, intellectual priorities and theoretical preoccupations," (Chia, 1995, p. 580).

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The article conducts a detailed comparison of modern and postmodern organizational styles. In a traditional or modern style, the emphasis is on structure, culture, gender, and ethics within organizations (Chia, 1995). As compared to postmodern, this concept highlights the collectively effects individuals, organizations and society. "Modernism has been associated with the triumph of reason; objective scientific logic" (p. 585), Chia discusses the concept of an ideally isolated system. Modern theorizing "embodies a fundamental character of things, without which science, or indeed any knowledge on part of finite intellects would be impossible," (Chia, 1995, p. 585).

Gronroos, C. (1994). From scientific management to service management: a management perspective for the age of service competition. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(1), 5-20.

In the article by Gronroos, the discussion is centered on the new organizational theory of service management. The author provides a brief comparison of the foundation of service management which is the scientific management theory. Service management's history and how it emerged is discussed in detail in this article. Gronroos, illustrates the influence it offers for research and practice. According to Gronroos, "the term service management was introduced in Swedish in 1982 and in English in 1984," (Gronroos, 1994, p. 15).

In this article, the theory of service management is more or less a shift in focus. The following five facets of service are guiding principles in the concept:

Overall management perspective

Customer driven

Holistic perspective

Quality

Internal development

Scientific management emerged during the industrial revolution. Fundamental parts of scientific management theory include mass productions and economies of scale (Gronroos, 1994). The wellbeing of the workforce was taken into consideration with the scientific management theory. In service management customer satisfaction is the primary focus. Organizations must gain a competitive edge through market economies which results in profitability. It is imperative to concentration on closer market orientation rather than large scale production.

Kernaghan, K. (2000). The post-bureaucratic organization and public service values.International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66(1), 91-104.

This article examines the implications of new approaches of organizational theory for the values of public service. Kernaghan has three major arguments to support this theory. The first argument is the systematic account of reform. The second argument is that values should be not only ethical values but should consist of other accountability. And lastly, the third argument is "that statement of key values (often described as a code of conduct, both for the public service as a whole and for individual public organizations, facilities an assessment of the value consequences of reforms," (Kernaghan, 2000, p. 91).

Kernaghan provides a framework to compare and contrast the characteristics of the bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic organization. The characteristics are broken into three categories: Policy and management culture, structure, and market orientation, these characteristics reflect "the broad scope of recent reform initiatives and proposals" (Kernaghan, 2000, p. 92).

Liu, H., & Han, L. (2013, December). The Beauty of the Transcending of the Humanity-Research on Maslow's Self-actualization Theory. In 2013 International Conference on Advances in Social Science, Humanities, and Management (ASSHM-13). Atlantis Press.

This journal article provides insight into the life of Abraham Maslow and discusses one of the most influential philosophies of motivation. Maslow is a "world-renowned social psychologist, personality theorist and an expert at comparative psychology" (Liu and Han, 2013, p. 229). He is most known for his contribution to society with the theory of self-realization. The concept "is complex and rich in connotation" (Liu and Han, 2013, p. 229). The authors attempt to analyze the concept of self-actualization and peak experience from a humanity perspective.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs has five realizations: physiology, safety, love/belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The article focuses on self-actualization.

According to the article, self-actualization is "the theoretical symbol of Maslow's humanistic psychology and the core of his theories on ethics" (Liu and Han, 2013, p. 229). Maslow's theory is centered on man or humanity. His psychology is "human-centered and based on humans' needs with full realization of human potential as its final goal" (Liu and Han, 2013, p. 229). Maslow's theory suggests that human behavior is motivated by their needs.

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, 21, 166.

McGregor explains in his article, the human side of enterprise. The explorations of new social sciences have become quite influential within the organizational setting. The conventional view of the human enterprise is the conception of management's task in harnessing energy "to organizational requirements can be stated broadly in terms of three propositions" (McGregor, 1960, p. 166). These sets of propositions are called Theory X. Within this theory, management is responsible for organizing money, equipment, materials and people for financial ends. According to McGregor (1960), Theory X is the process of motivating, directing efforts, controlling actions and modifying behavior.

The article discusses the various needs such as physiological, safety, social, ego and self-fulfillment. McGregor also discusses the carrot-and-stick theory of motivation. This theory works well under particular circumstances. The disadvantage to this theory is that once the person has reached its adequacy the needs become greater. An alternative theory would include Theory Y. This theory makes "adequate assumptions about human nature and human motivation" (McGregor, 1960, p. 169). Steps in the right direction include decentralization and delegation; job enlargement; participation and consultative management; and performance appraisal. In closing, McGregor reminds us that the application of talents to the human side of enterprise will bring us one step closer to a better society.

Ostrom, V., & Ostrom, E. (1971) Public choice: A different approach to the study of public administration Public Administration Review, 203-216.

The economists and other social scientists highlighted in this article explore the interest of non-market decision making. A shared concern among the experts regarding application of economic reasoning to collective, political, or social decision making was discussed. However, they lacked the choice of a name to characterize these interests (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1971). The authors discuss the approach to outline the basic theory of traditions in public administration. Theoretical tradition was examined and then challenged later to be characterized as a crisis of identity (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1971).

The article discusses traditional theory of public administration and explains that there is a need for a new science of administration between politics and administrations. All governments have a strong correlation and must be useful and efficient in theory. The authors describe the ends of public administration were seen as "management of men and material in the accomplishment of purpose of the state" (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1971, p. 204).

The article promotes moving towards new perspectives in the study of public administration. The authors discuss how prior analysis was largely situational and relative to provisions of a single public good. An approach to increasing sustained a high level of performance involves a system of public administration composed of multi-organizational arrangements, which will result in the advancement of the public welfare (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1971).

Parker, M. (1992). Post-modern organizations or postmodern organization theory?. Organization Studies, 13(1), 1-17.

The relevance of postmodernity is debated for organizational analysis. Postmodernism is beginning to enter organizational studies. Parker states there is "a distinction between the periodization 'post-modern' and a 'postmodern' epistemology is explored in terms of its consequences" (Park, 1992, p. 1). The author explains that postmodernity, postmodernism or postmoderization is not easily defined. The variance in language and logic provides challenges (Park, 1992). Parker's attempt to define modernism is described "as having elevated a faith in reason to a level at which it becomes equated with progress" (Park, 1992, p. 3). The concept of modernism requires management. One argument includes a suggestion "that bureaucratic methods of structuring are being replaced by the postmodern corporation" (Park, 1992, p. 3). In closing, new language "provides the user with a sense that they are themselves pushing forward the boundaries of their discipline" (Park, 1992, p. 13).

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