The article “Optimism, Pessimism and Coping in a Dual-Domain Model of Sport and School Satisfaction” by Gaudreau and Gunnell is a study that offers an expository assessment about the effects of stress on Adolescent students, in both academic and sports domains. In the article, Gaudreau and Gunnell argue that being a competitive athlete during adolescent provides greater opportunities to experience positive states of engagements, in addition to gaining of considerable skills that are transferable. As an investigation that intended to examine the dual-domain model, the coping, and satisfaction of the students-athletes were treated different and separate measures. Gaudreau and Gunnell agree that several personalities’ dimensions such as the optimism and pessimism play substantial roles in relation to the manner in which individuals are coping with stress. On a wider note, the people with dispositional optimism expect that good things will occur in future. On the other hand, those with dispositional optimism usually depict negative expectations.
As a conclusion, Gaudreau and Gunnell agree that both optimism and pessimism have generalised effects that transfer to both coping and satisfaction in sports and learning institutions. Through supporting their matching-domain hypothesis, the authors found that coping for games offered greater predictions for sports while adapting for sports offered a greater prediction of school satisfaction. Under these circumstances and about the study hypothesis, the adolescents’ students and particularly the optimists observably appeared to experience strong school and sports satisfaction through a utilization of the TOC and consequent lower DOC. The spillover effects were not supported by any of the domain in the study. Ideally, Gaudreau and Gunnell embraced the significance of taking contexts into consideration in the process of examining the sophisticated, complex association of the survey variables. In this sense, therefore, they believe that contexts should be prioritized in the investigating the positive spillover effects on educational systems.
The article by Turrisi, Mastroleo and Mallet uses the perspectives from the general literature on college alcohol with the aim of examining the mediational implications of the peer, environmental, and the parental variables on heavy drinking for the student’s athlete and those who do not participate in athletics. Observably, the study compared 835 first-year students who portrayed tremendous differences on substantial alcohol effects, peer norms, parental interaction, in addition to the environmental influences.
In the study, the authors find that the students in the colleges depicted greater heavy drinking experiences compared to the non-athletes. On a wider note, it was found that allowing the young people to drink, the adequateness of the alcohol played significant roles in mediating the relationship between the athletics and drinking behaviors. Under most occasions, the athletes depicted a higher perception of peer drinking, peer approval and the availability of alcohol. In this case, therefore, various interventions can play crucial roles in multivariate influences examined in the study. As a conclusion, the study offers the suggestions regarding the parental communications regarding the physical consequences that are related to the alcohol consumption to less heavy use in participants.
Despite the fact that the study has offered an illumination of the mediational variables concerned with the alcohol consumptions in the athletes, the limitations are provided. In this sense, the authors solely depended on a convenience sample, who were mainly the Caucasians, with more female than male participants. It is, however, significant in taking the meditational technique in the process of examining the factors that resolve high-risk drinking.
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