Essay Sample on Antioxidants Role in Disease

Published: 2023-10-29
 Essay Sample on Antioxidants Role in Disease
Essay type:  Argumentative essays
Categories:  Medicine Pharmacology Disorder
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1446 words
13 min read

Free radical is continuously generated in the body as a result of exposure to radiation as exposure to some environmental pollutants as well as s byproduct of healthy body metabolism. The continues production of the radicals can cause severe damage to the cell components, which additionally can result in various kinds of ailments such as cancer, Alzheimer's, cardiovascular disorder, and Atherosclerosis, just to name a few and this is owing to their radioactive nature. It is, however, essential to note that these radicals are neutralized through different mechanisms in the body including the antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, and superoxide dismutase well as the small molecules of nutrients that deliver antioxidants, for instance, vitamin E, taurine, vitamin C, uric acid, flavonoids to name a few. This paper aims to discuss the role that antioxidants play in the [prevention of Coronary Heart Disorder, cancer, and Atherosclerosis.

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Cardiovascular diseases include both the ailments of the heart and the blood vessels. However, cardiovascular disease includes two major subtypes, namely cerebrovascular disease(stroke) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Coronary heart ailment is the illness of the blood vessel supplying the heart muscles with blood and oxygen. The principal cause of the CHD is toughening as well as thinning of the blood vessel caused by accumulation of fatty materials and plaque, and this decreases the “blood flow through the coronary artery to the heart muscles” (Hajhashemi et al., 2010). The complete cut-off of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscles then may lead in heart failure, angina, or arrhythmias. The CHD is presently the principal cause of demise globally, with an estimate of 3.8M males and 3.4M females dying of this ailment (Gaziano et al., 2010). In developing nations, cardiovascular illness is the chief cause of death.

Cancer is a generic term for a larger group of disorders that can affect various parts of the body. Other terms used are neoplasms and malignant tumors; however, the one underlying characteristic of cancer is the rapid degeneration or growth of abnormal cells that grow behold their boundaries and therefore invade the adjoining parts of the body. “Cancer is among the leading cause of death globally, accounting for approximately 9.6 million deaths in the year 2018” (Carr & Cook, 2018). It is also important to note that globally that one out of six deaths are a result of cancer. With cancer of the lungs and breasts contributing to 2.09 cases, followed by colorectal, Prostate cancer, sin cancer, and stomach with 1.80, 1.28, 1.04, and 1.03 million cases, respectively as published by World Health Organisation in the year 2018. The cancer burden continues to snowball globally, excreting tremendous physical, financial as well as emotional strain on persons, families, communities, and health care schemes. In low-income as well as middle-income countries, the health systems are not adequately prepared to manage the cancer burden, and millions of patients do not have timely access to timely and quality diagnosis and treatment hence a large number of deaths.

Atherosclerosis is caused by the build-up of cholesterol and plaques in the blood arteries wall causing them to narrow down as well as hardening them. The disruption in the flow of the blood around the body increases the risk of difficulties like stroke and heart attack. It is, therefore, essential to note that these complications are life-threatening. Atherosclerosis is among the leading causes of illness internationally with up to 31% of the global deaths being as a result of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

The presence of free radicals in the body and in large amounts can lead to severe damage to the body cells, for instance, damage to the DNA, and this can lead to the growth of cancer and other types of health illnesses. On the contrary, antioxidants ate chemicals that interact with these free radicals and neutralize them, therefore preventing them from causing severe damage to the body cells (Carr & Cook, 2018). It is important to note that some of the antioxidants are produced in the body while others are obtained through external sources such as diet. And these antioxidants are referred to as dietary antioxidants, which are widely available in grains, fruits, and vegetables. At the same time, other dietary antioxidants are in supplement form. The typical illustrations of nutritional antioxidants comprise vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, and lycopene. Therefore, the consumption of food that is rich in vitamin A D, C, and K help in the generation of the antioxidants that inhabit the oxidation shield and act as a defensive agent. They help shield the body from the destructive impact of free radicals. Provitamin A, also commonly referred to as the Beta Carotene, helps reduce the danger of developing tumor. According to the American cancer society, the nutrient is effective in reducing particular tumors by enhancing the white body cells. The white blood cells' role is to slab the cell-destroying free radicals. However, numerous researches have been done on the function of vitamin C in the management of cancer (Carr & Cook, 2018). However, the outcome of these studies yields minimal results in terms of improvement in the life expectancy as well as the shrinkage of the tumor. However, vitamin C is critical and effective in decreasing chemotherapy-induced side effects like fatigue, and this is due to its anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory properties.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDLs) is the major component present in atherosclerotic plaque. The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein is critical in the formation or growth of Atherosclerosis (Judd & Tangpricha, 2009). The increase in the free radicals in the arterial intima as well, as plasma raises the rate at which LDL is oxidized and increases the risk of plaque formation. However, the oxidants present in plasma, as well as the wall of the arteries, decrease the rate at which LDL is oxidized. “It is important to note that the significant fat-soluble antioxidants are vitamin E and Beta-Carotene. On the contrary, the primary water-soluble antioxidant is vitamin C.” The presence of these vitamins reduces the rate at which LDL oxidized and preserve vasoreactivity and therefor enhancing the release of endothelial nitric oxide as well as reduce thrombogenicity. Additionally, antioxidants might decrease the risk of plaque rupture and progression. Vitamin E has the role of preventing the peroxidation of polyunsaturated full of fat acids in the membrane. The presence of vitamin E reduces or prevents the oxidation of LDL since it is incorporated into lipoproteins as well as the cell membrane. On the one hand, vitamin C is a “Predominant Plasma Antioxidant.” It places the role of scavenging the plasma free radicals and stops them from entering the LDL atoms. Additionally, vitamin C generated live vitamin E and enhanced the emission of saturated fat.

The growth of Atherosclerosis is highly dependent on the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. The oxidized LDLs may lead to the recruits of monocytes as well as enhance the transformation into foam cells through the scavenger pathway. Additionally, the oxidized LDLs are also responsible for endothelial cell damages as well as the degeneration of atherosclerotic plaque in humans (Cherubini et al., 2005). The consumption or the presence of antioxidants like vitamin C, E, and Carotenoids, and the outcome has suggested that vitamin oxidants are effective in minimizing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is essential to note that the use of natural antioxidants is mainly active in subgroups of patients but with high amounts of oxidative.

In conclusion, free radicals can lead to numerous illnesses once oxidized. For a healthy human being, there must exist a stability among free radicals and antioxidants. The presence of antioxidants prevents the oxidation of the free radicals which and hence prevent different diseases. Therefore, antioxidants like vitamins A, C, E, and carotene, among others plays an essential role in both the management and prevention of various ailments.


Carr, A. C., & Cook, J. (2018). Intravenous Vitamin C for Cancer Therapy – Identifying the Current Gaps in Our Knowledge. Frontiers in Physiology, 9. doi:10.3389/fphys.2018.01182

Cherubini, A., Vigna, G., Zuliani, G., Ruggiero, C., Senin, U., & Fellin, R. (2005). Role of Anti-Oxidants in Atherosclerosis: Epidemiological and Clinical Update. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 11(16), 2017-2032. doi:10.2174/1381612054065783

Gaziano, T., Bitton, A., Anand, S., Abrahams-Gessel, S., & Murphy, A. (2010, February). Growing epidemic of coronary heart disease in low- and middle-income countries. Retrieved July 30, 2020, from

Hajhashemi, V., Vaseghi, G., Pourfarzam, M., & Abdollahi, A. (2010, January). Are antioxidants helpful for disease prevention? Retrieved July 30, 2020, from

Judd, S. E., & Tangpricha, V. (2009). Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 338(1), 40-44. doi:10.1097/maj.0b013e3181aaee91

World Health Organisation. (2018, September 12). Cancer. Retrieved July 30, 2020, from

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