Paper Example. Anatomy and Physiology

Published: 2023-04-10
Paper Example. Anatomy and Physiology
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Knowledge Biology Anatomy
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1794 words
15 min read

Why was a lecture on study design included at the start of this course?

A lecture on study design was included because for a researcher to conduct high quality research with valid results, the study design is essential. It also involves many important procedures, such as pointing out the specific interventions required, the definition of the target population, and the selection of suitable outcome procedures. The study design, therefore, is the main determiner of the scientific value as well as the informativeness of the research conducted (Eifler & Howard, 2017). Lastly, the study design is important because it encompasses various considerations such as the research questions that need to be answered, the measuring techniques, and also ways of calculating sample size.

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Why would you have a hard time trying to learn and understand physiology if you do not also understand anatomy?

If you do not understand physiology, it is hard to understand anatomy because they are closely connected. Anatomy focuses on studying the physical structures of a human body while physiology explains how specific organs function with the related systemin a human body. Anatomy helps to clarify the structure, while physiology describes how the human body functions (Sieck,2017). It is, therefore, very hard to understand how a human body works without the knowledge of the physical structures that it has; hence anatomy and physiology go hand in hand.

List the 11 organ systems of the body, briefly describe the function of each, and then name two organs in each system. (Note - the brain and spinal cord are a single nerve plexus, not two separate organs. More on this in the nervous system lecture.)

The human body has 11 different organ systems, which include skeletal, integumentary, nervous, muscular, lymphatic, circulatory, endocrine, respiratory, reproductive, digestive, and excretory systems. Integumentary include skin and subcutaneous fats and gives protection from the surroundings. The muscular system includes skeletal muscles and provides support and locomotion. The skeletal system has bones and joints and enhances structural support. The nervous system includes the spinal cord and brain and controls responses and coordinate movements. The circulatory system has heart and blood vessels and delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells. The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic cells, and lymph nodes digestive system enhances food breakdown and nutrients absorption and is made of mouth, stomach, and other organs. The respiratory system enhances breathing and begins from the nasal cavity to Alveoli in the lungs.

Define homeostasis and explain how homeostasis (or its loss) is related to disease and aging. (Provide examples to support your reasoning.)

Homeostasis refers to a self-regulating procedure used by biological systems to maintain stability when adopting to conditions necessary for survival. An example of homeostasis is body temperature regulation. Most of the illnesses result from homeostatic imbalance as the body fails to restore a stable and functional internal environment. Aging leads to this imbalance because the control mechanisms lose efficiency.

Describe the eight main mechanisms of disease.

The defects in cellular and molecular processes that constitute the prompts of pathologies are known as mechanisms of disease. The epigenetic and genetic anomalies cause several human diseases, which include cancer and other inherited disorders-some diseases are due to infectious agents. Understanding the molecular, biochemical, epigenetic, and genetic source of illness gives a chance for the illnesses to be treated.

Why is the body considered to be a volume conductor? (Be sure to discuss compartments in your answer.)

The human body is considered a volume conductor because the electric activities that occur in a human brain are related to vital physiological functions, which can be seen via biomagnetic measurements. Besides, the cardiac investigations, the current distribution is imaged via cardiac investigations. The cardiologist can track the location and area with infarctions, among other dysfunctions.

Distinguish between an element, a molecule, and a compound.

A molecule is a result of a chemical combination of two or more atoms of a certain element. A compound, however, refers to a kind of a molecule that whose atoms differ from one another. It means that all atoms are similar in a molecule of an element. For instance, the water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom, but an oxygen molecule has two oxygen atoms.

Explain the basis of ionic bonding. How do ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds?

In ionic bonds, an atom donates an electron to improve the stability of the other atom. Atoms involved in ionic bonds have differing electronegativity values from one another. In covalent bonds the atoms share electrons, and that is what binds them. Electronegativity is similar in a true covalent bond. The difference between covalent and ionic bonds is that ionic bond forms between metals while covalent bond form with non-metals (Helmenstine, 2007). The ionic bonds have high polarity, indefinite shape, and high melting point, while covalent bonds have low polarity, definite shape, and low melting point.

What are enzymes, and how do they work? Include how (a mechanism) high pH and high body temperature interfere with enzyme activity.

Enzymes refer to biological molecules that meaningfully speed up the rate of nearly all the chemical reactions that take place in cells. They are catalysts for change as they increase chemical reaction changes without getting used up via the dropping of activation energy in the reaction. They change shapes to fit into one another, forming an enzyme-substrate complex perfectly. High temperature may lead to an enzyme's loss of shape and eventual dysfunction, while extreme Ph values may result in the denaturing of enzymes.

What is the "fight or flight" response, and what are its neuronal and hormonal components?

The fight or flight response refers to a physiological reaction that takes place in the event of a physical or mental terrifying happening. This response occurs due to the production of hormones that either triggers you to run or stay and handle the threat. The nervous system responds to acute stress by the abrupt release of hormones. The nervous system triggers adrenal glands, which produce adrenaline and noradrenaline that causes sweating, high heartbeat rates, among other things.

What evidence is there that stress responses cause disease?

Research shows that stress has a great influence on behavior, mood, and health. Acute stress responses may be adopted by healthy young individuals causing no health problems, but if the threat is unremitting to unhealthy and older people, the stress may eventually damage their health (Schneiderman, Ironson, & Siegel, 2005). The relationship between disease and psychosocial stressors is dependent on the number, nature, individual's biological vulnerability, and persistence of the stressor.

What effect does prolonged stress response have on wound healing, and why?

Stress can prolong the time that is taken for wounds to heal by up to 25% or more. Research by Glaser (2010) shows that stress delays the closure of wounds. Besides, if a surgery is conducted, and the patient becomes anxious and depressed after the operation, it results in more pain, which is a stressor that slows down healing (Glaser,2010). Lastly, the immune system plays a major role in the healing of wounds, and its functions are altered by stress; hence it's not able to heal wounds.

Define tissue. List the four major types of tissue. Which of the four major tissue types is most widely distributed in the body?

Tissue refers to the distinct types of materials that make up plants and animals. The four types of tissues include epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue, and nervous tissue. The most widely distributed tissue is connective tissue, as it forms a connective web inside the body. It holds together the body parts and provides bodily support.

Why does cartilage take longer to heal than bone? (This has nothing to do with incisions vs. tears.)

Bone injuries heal faster as compared to cartilages because the bone cells can rapidly respond to injuries and then begin to divide to repair the injuries. Once the bone is grown, cartilages are inactive; hence the chondrocytes do not have an immediate response to injuries, and hardly does cell division occurs after completion of growth.

What are the two great controlling systems of the body (The nervous system is just one)?

The two major controlling systems of the body are the endocrine system and the nervous system. The endocrine system regulates all physical processes in the body by releasing hormones that are then transmitted via the bloodstream. The nervous system controls the physiological processes by transmitting nerve impulses by the use of neurotransmitters.

Two major cell groups make up the nervous system- neurons and connective tissues; cells such as astrocytes and Schwann cells. Which are signal-transmitting cells? What are the major functions of the other cell group?

The signal-transmitting cells are the astrocytes. Role of the Schwan cells

They support the peripheral nervous system by producing myelination found in axons. They also produce the myelin sheath, which is crucial in insulating the axons and neurons. this myelination is crucial in facilitating the effective transmission of signals along the axon

Briefly explain how nerve impulses are initiated and transmitted.

The generation of a nerve impulse is as a result of a strong stimulus: the stimulus trigger chemical and electrical changes in neurons. The generation of a nerve impulse causes changes in cell membrane permeability, causing potassium ions to flow outside while sodium ions flow inside. A series of reactions occur, changing the direction of the flow of potassium and sodium ions. When the nerve impulse gets to the axon's end, the neurotransmitters produce some chemicals (Holland, De Regt, & Drukarch, 2019). Nerve impulses are transmitted either via chemical or electrical synapses.

What is the function of the thalamus? The hypothalamus? The cerebellum?

Thalamus relays impulses that travel from and to the cerebrum, spinal cord, cerebellum, and brain stem. It also directs sensory inputs to suitable areas in the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus is below the thalamus and is a center for vital internal body functions. It monitors body temperature, water, and hormone concentrations and is linked to aggression, rage, thirst, and hunger. The cerebellum is responsible for receiving information from the spinal cord, sensory systems, and other brain parts and also controls motor movements.

List five different functional areas of the cerebral hemisphere and say what each does.

The cerebral hemisphere functional areas include sensory, motor, association, limbic system, and primary sensory cortex. Sensory areas are responsible for the reception and interpretation of somatic sensory impulses. The motor areas control the generation of impulses that innervate all the bodily effectors. The association areas are involved in the integration of sensory information with memories, emotional states, rational, and learning thought processes. The primary sensory cortex is responsible for the reception of impulses that are routed through the medulla, thalamus, and spinal cord (Lippincott, 2002). Finally, the limbic system carries out the behavior, olfaction, motivation, emotion, and other autonomic functions.

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