Literature Review Sample in Management of Diabetes
Management and control of Diabetes mellitus are living a healthy lifestyle through exercising, diet and taking prescribed medication.
This forms the foundation upon which management of diabetes is based. The nutritionists aim at achieving the following:
Attaining energy requirements
Maintenance of a healthy weight
Maintaining blood glucose within or close to the normal range
Provide the body with the essential nutritional requirement
Reducing blood lipids
Exercise and diet treat type 2 diabetes, but in exceptional cases, it calls for administration of oral supplements and insulin injections (Royle& Walsh 1992:597; Whittemore et al. 2002:18).
Example of a Literature Review
Restrictions in Diet
Savoca and Miller (2001:225) make an interesting observation with findings from earlier researchers on diabetic patients. They note that most individuals agree that following healthy diets as being the most challenging component of self-care. Diabetic patients showed rigid tendencies concerning their diet when compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Whittemore et al. (2002:22) together with Fukunishi and Akimoto (1997: 1364) attributed the failure of people with diabetes to adhere to a healthy diet to a couple of reasons. Patients are bound to overeat as a reaction to stress and negative emotions. Whenever a patient eats away from their places of residence, it becomes difficult to have control over the type of food and their portions. Intense craving may sometimes prove to be irresistible. Other factors that may lead to low adherence include social events, lack of friends and family support and the feeling of being deprived.
Toljamo and Hentinem in their research of 2001 underline the importance of social support in adherence to self-care among patients facing chronic illnesses. This results in better metabolic control. They also note that emotional support can act as motivation towards adherence to healthy living.
Travis (1997:152) as well as Cleaver and Pollourios (1994:17) site food restriction as being of the reasons why adherence is low in diabetic population. People prefer salted, fried or sweetened foods. Some patient goes for sugar instead of sweeteners as advised and others prefer high sodium foods as opposed to the recommended low sodium foods. Most people engage in this cat and mouse games thinking that they are not in sight of care providers, what they forget is that the final impact will be felt by them.
Some patient's dietary restriction lead to reduced social activities due to fear of temptation. In some events where they attend social gatherings, they eat what they are not supposed to result in rising in their glucose level causing hyperglycemia. The blood pressure remain elevated in hypertensive patients (Cleaver & Pallorious 1994:181)
It is common knowledge that delicacies offered at most parties are restricted to diabetic patients. In most parties we have cold drinks, cakes, alcoholic beverages and fatty foods served as the meat just to mention few. Smeltzer and Bare (1992:1029) insist on the complete restriction of alcoholic drinks in diabetic patients. They attribute this to the alcohol, in particular on an empty stomach causing low blood glucose causing hypoglycemia. The high content of calories in alcohol can lead to weight gain upon excessive consumption. Overindulgence in alcohol may mean lack of proper judgment to recognize hypoglycemia and the meal plan. Cholesterol should be put in a check to avoid coronary heart infections.
Sample Literature Review
A diet to be adhered to by diabetic individuals can include carbohydrates, fiber, low-fat diet, vegetables, fruits, spices and let’s say a glass of yogurt and low fat, milk. There exist soluble and insoluble forms of fiber. Soluble type decreases lipid levels and blood glucose. The gel formed slows the absorption of food lowering blood glucose. Insoluble fiber prevents constipation and improves stool bulk (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1029).Despite the fact that yogurt contains simple forms of sugar, it is important to take them (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1028; Delport 2002:35).
Use of natural sugar is becoming acceptable on the condition the patient maintains the weight, blood sugars, and lipid levels. In a significant number of patients, free use of carbohydrates promotes compliance to the meal plan (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1028).There should be controlled consumption of cold drinks and encouragement to consume pure juices. It is important for patients to use sweeteners in tea or coffee. Sweeteners fall into two broad categories called nutritive and non-nutritive. Nutritive sweeteners should be taken in moderate amounts to avoid hyperglycemia while the non-nutritive counterparts are free from calories and their consumption is not limited (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1031).
Smeltzer and Bare in their 1992 work note the importance of diabetic patients is maintaining weight. Overweight individuals should scale down to more manageable loads. ADIFAX capsules help the patients maintain weight with a regular diet. XENICAL is another key drug in promotion and maintenance of body weight. Consumption of the drug for two years regulates weight gain (Sanders 1995:7 Xenical: New Hope for Obesity Treatment 1999:1).
Adherence to the meal plans for a long time is a challenge. Those who lose weight find it difficult to maintain their new weight. Meal plans should be customized according to patient's needs and preferences (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1028)
It is an essential management plan especially in cholesterol control and weight reduction. Patients should be told of possible hypoglycemia after exercise (Smeltzer & Bare 1992:1031).Training can be considered whether aerobics, soccer, swimming, walking, or athletics (Lewis et al. 1996:1453; Smeltzer & Bare 1996:1026).Housework, Gardening, and other physical activities are also exercised, and they assist in facilitating effect of insulin and improving emotion. Portions of insulin doses should be reduced after exercise to avoid low sugar levels in the blood.
1. Delport, C.S.L. & Fouché, C.B. (2002). The qualitative research report. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
2. Fujioka K. (2007). Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and the role of incretin hormones and beta-cell dysfunction. Japan: Supplementary Publishers.
3. Lewis, R.J., O.M. Singh, C.V. Smith, T. Skarzynski, A. Maxwell, A.J. Wonacott, D.B. Wigley .(1996). The nature of inhibition of DNA gyrase by the coumarins and the cyclothialidines revealed by X-ray crystallography. New York, NY: Embo j.
4. Royle, J. A., Walsh, M., & Watson, J. E. (1992). Watson's medical-surgical nursing and related physiology. London: Baillière Tindall.
5. Schoeman, J.P. (1996). Fantasy, metaphor and imagination: A Play Therapy Approach. Pretoria: Kagiso Publishers.
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